CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Biology)


CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Biology)

The present syllabus provides the students with new concepts along with an extended exposure to contemporary areas of the subject. The syllabus also aims at emphasizing on the underlying principles that are common to both animals and plants as well as highlighting the relationship of Biology with other areas of knowledge. The format of the syllabus allows a simple, clear, sequential flow of concepts. It relates the study of biology to real life through the use of technology. It links the discoveries and innovations in biology to everyday life such as environment, industry, health and agriculture. The updated syllabus also focuses on reducing the curriculum load while ensuring that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating basic concepts of the subject continue to be available within its framework. The prescribed syllabus is expected to: promote understanding of basic principles of Biology; encourage learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and society; promote rational/scientific attitude towards issues related to population, environment and development; enhance awareness about environmental issues, problems and their appropriate solutions; create awareness amongst the learners about diversity in the living organisms and developing respect for other living beings; appreciate that the most complex biological phenomena are built on essentially simple processes;
It is expected that the students would get an exposure to various branches of Biology in the syllabus in a more contextual and friendly manner as they study its various units.

CLASS XII (2018-19)

Time: 3 Hours

Max. Marks: 70


Title No. of Periods


VI Reproduction 30


VII Genetics and Evolution 40


VIII Biology and Human Welfare 30


IX Biotechnology and its Applications 30



Ecology and Environment 30


  Total 160


Unit-VI Reproduction : 30 periods

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution : 40 Periods

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans - thalassemia;
chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

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Courtesy: CBSE

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