Syllabus CBSE Class 12th
Unit I: Solid State (Periods 12)
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic,
covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary
idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation
of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of
atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic
properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and
n & p type semiconductors.
Unit II: Solutions (Periods 12)
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in
liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties
- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling
point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of
molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, van't
Unit III: Electrochemistry (Periods 14)
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar
conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law,
electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell - lectrolytic
cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode
potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation
between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics (Periods 12)
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of
reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a
reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and
half life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory
(elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious
Unit V: Surface Chemistry (Periods 8)
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of
gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and
selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true
solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic , lyophobic multimolecular and
macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian
movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.
Unit VI : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Periods
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction -
electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of
aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit VII: p -Block Elements (Periods 14)
Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration,
occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties;
nitrogen preparation properties & uses ; compounds of nitrogen, preparation and
properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (Structure only) ;
Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus: preparation and
properties of phosphine, halides PCl3 , PCl5 and oxoacids (elementary idea
only). Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration,
oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical
properties,dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of oxides,
Ozone, Sulphure -allotropic forms; compounds of sulphure: Preparation properties
and uses of sulphur-dioxide, sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture,
properties and uses; oxoacids of sulphur (Structures only). Group 17 Elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation
properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds,
oxoacids of halogens (structures only). Group 18 Elements: General introduction,
electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements (Periods 14)
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and
characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first
row transition metals - metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation
states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties,
interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7
and KMnO4. Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical
reactvity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. Actinoids -
Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds (Periods 12)
Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour,
magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination
compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereo
isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion,
extraction of metals and biological system).
Unit X : Haloalkanes and Haloarenes. (Periods 12)
- Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C -X bond, physical and chemical
properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.
- Haloarenes: Nature of C -X bond, substitution reactions (Directive
influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only.
- Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane,
tetrachloromethane, iodoform freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers (Periods 12)
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties( of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and
tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to
methanol and ethanol. Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical
and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution
reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation,
physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids (Periods 12)
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of
preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophillic
addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes: uses. Carboxylic Acids:
Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen (Periods 10)
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation,
physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and
tertiary amines. Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places
in context. Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in
synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules (Periods 12)
Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides
(glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose,
maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) importance. Proteins
-Elementary idea of α - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins,
structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary
structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones
- Elementary idea excluding structure. Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
Unit XV: Polymers (Periods 8)
Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition
and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and
synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life (Periods 8)
Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics,
disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids,
antihistamines. Chemicals in food - preservations, artificial sweetening agents,
elementary idea of antioxidants. Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents,
- Volumetric Analysis : 10
- Salt Analysis : 8
- Content Based Experiment : 6
- Class record, project work and viva : 6
Total : 30
Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical
experiments. Wherever possible, such techniques should be used.
A. Surface Chemistry (Periods 5)
(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol Lyophilic sol -
starch, egg albumin and gum Lyophobic sol - aluminium hydroxide, ferric
hydroxide, arsenous sulphide.
(b) Dialysis of sol-prepared in (a) above.
(c) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of
B. Chemical Kinetics (Periods 4)
(a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between
sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
(i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using
different concentration of iodide ions.
(ii) Reaction between potassium iodate, (KIO3) and sodium sulphite: (Na2SO3)
using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).
C. Thermochemistry (Periods 4)
Any one of the following experiments
i) Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.
ii) Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH).
iii) Determination of enthaply change during interaction (Hydrogen bond
formation) between acetone and chloroform.
D. Electrochemistry (Periods 2)
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+|| Cu2+/Cu with
change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4)
at room temperature.
E. Chromatography (Periods 2)
i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper
chromatography and determination of Rf values.
ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two
cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided).
F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (Periods 4)
i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum.
ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.
G. Preparation of Organic Compounds (Periods 2)
Preparation of any one of the following compounds
ii) Di -benzal acetone
iv) Aniline yellow or 2 - Naphthol aniline dye.
H. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds: (Periods
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino
I. Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples
and their detection in given food stuffs. (Periods 4)
J. Determination of concentration/ molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating
it against a standard solution of: (Periods 8)
i) Oxalic acid,
ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard
solutions by weighing themselves).
K. Qualitative analysis (Periods 14)
Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.
Cation - Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+,
A3l , Fe3+,Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+,
Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH+
Anions - Co2- 3, S2-, SO2- 3,
SO2- 4, NO- 2, NO- 3,
Cl-, Br-, I-, PO3- 4, C2O2-
4, CH3COO- (Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting
information from other sources.
A few suggested Projects.
• Study of the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of
• Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
• Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with
respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.
• Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various
conditions (temperature, concentration, time etc.)
• Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and
temperature on it.
• Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat
flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice etc.
• Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum),
• Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric power,
chilli powder and pepper.
Note: Any investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work,
can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.
1. Chemistry Part -I, Published by NCERT.
2. Chemistry Part -II, Published by NCERT.