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(Paper) History Sample Paper Class XII - 1997 (Solved)
Sample Paper- Year 1997 (Solved)
Explain the inability of the Marathas to establish a strong empire in the 18th
century. (5 marks)
Ans. The Maratha kingdom emerged as one of the most important succession states after the decay of the Mughal Empire in the 18th century. It possessed the strength to fill the political vacuum created by the disintegration of the Mughal Empire. But the Maratha sardars lacked unity and program, which were necessary for founding an all -India empire. For instance, a civil war broke out in 1707 at Satara between Shahu and his aunt Tara Bai. The Maratha sardars, each one of whom had a following of soldiers loyal to himself alone, began to side with one or the other contender of the power instead of fighting against a common enemy .
This provided a rift in the process of empire building. Another reason for the weakness of Maratha Empire was their conquest strategy. The conquests outside the Maratha territories was not made by the central army under the control of Peshwas, but by sardars with their own private armies. Later some of these sardars became so powerful and independent that they challenged the Peshwas and did not hesitate to join with the enemies. Some of them carved out their independent states such as the Gaekwads of Baroda and the Bhonsles of Nagpur. The economy of the Maratha Empire was not based on a stable source of revenue from agriculture or trade. Unlike the Mughals, the Marathas depended on loot and plunder to sustain their empire. In the long run, this became a major source of weakness for the Marathas chiefs or the sardars who were assigned to collection of the booty kept the lion's share for themselves. Due to these reasons, the Marathas were unable to establish a strong empire in the 18th century.
What were the objectives of
the commercial policy of the British East India Company after 1813?
Ans. The economic interests of England guided the commercial policy of the British East India Company. British Imperialism aimed at its prime motive of exploitation of its colony i.e. India for maximum profits. The Industrial Revolution was the biggest factor which brought about a change in the commercial policy of Britain. It now produced machine made goods in bulk, which were much cheaper than the Indian handicrafts. Indian markets were flooded with British products which India was forced to accept under the free trade policy of Britain
On the other British capitalists ensured that the Indian products did not enter British markets. For this, the duty on Indian imports in Britain was raised as high as 400 percent. The Charter Act of 1813 was passed by the British by which the monopoly of the East India Company was curtailed by the Government of Britain. All Britishers were now allowed to trade in India. This act allowed the free flow of British goods in Indian markets without any check. Indians preferred the manufactured products to the Indian handicrafts, as they were cheaper and machine -made. This led to drainage of Indian wealth to England. Soon India became an economic colony of England.
Q.2 Mention two parliamentary
Acts passed before 1800 dealing with the control of the British Government over
the company's affairs in India. (2 marks)
Ans. The two Parliamentary Acts passed before 1800 dealing with the control of the British Government over the East India company's affairs were: - The Regulating Act of 1773 AD. This Act empowered the Government to regulate the Board of Directors and control the activities of the company. The Pitts India Act of 1784 AD. was passed to remove the shortcomings of the Regulating Act and give the British parliament a better control over the company's activities.
Q.3 What were the major
controversies in respect of education in early 19th century? How were they
resolved by the Minutes of 1835?
Ans. Before going into the controversies in respect of education in 19th century, one has to keep in mind that modern education was introduced by the British to fulfil their own interests, chief among them being the need to create clerks and lower post officers to reduce the administration costs. For the first 60 years of its dominion in India, the British East India Company took little interest in the education of its subjects. There were however, two very minor exceptions to this policy. In 1781, Warren Hastings set up the Calcutta Madrasah for the study and teaching of Muslim Law and in 1791, Jonathan Duncan started a sanskrit college at Varanasi for the study of Hindu Law.
Both these institutions were designed to provide a regular supply of qualified Indians to help the administration of law in the courts of the company. The humanitarians, including many Indians, believed that modern education would be the best remedy for the social, political and economic ills of the country. A humble beginning was made in 1813 when the Charter Act incorporated the principle of encouraging learned Indians and promoting the knowledge of modern sciences. The Act directed the company to spend 1 lakh rupee for this purpose. For years a great controversy raged in the country on the question of direction that this expenditure should take. While one section of opinion wanted it to be spent exclusively for the promotion of modern western sciences, others desired that, while western sciences and literature should be taught to take students to take up jobs, emphasis should be paid on the expansion of traditional learning.
Differences also arose on the medium of instruction. Some recommended the use of Indian languages, called vernacular, while others advocated the use of English. The two controversies were settled in 1835 when the Government of India decided to devote the limited resources it was willing to spare to the teaching of Western sciences and literature through the medium of English alone. Lord Macaulay, in a famous Minute issued that the Indian languages were not sufficiently developed to serve the purpose of introducing western sciences in India and that, the "Oriental learning "was completely inferior to European learning. After this, greater emphasis was laid on teaching of English language and the study of Indian languages was largely neglected.
What was the system of
Subsidiary Alliance? How did it help the British to consolidate their position
Ans. The Subsidiary Alliance system was introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1798 AD .Its main purpose was to expand the British Empire in India by conquering new territories and to decrease the French influence so that The British could become the paramount power in India. The British, under the subsidiary alliance system, agreed to protect the Indian rulers against external threats and internal disorder but, in return, the Indian rulers who agreed to the Subsidiary Alliance system were to agree to the stationing of British contingent for whose maintenance they would pay a subsidy to the British.
The ruler under the system of alliance could neither enter into alliance with any other power nor fight a war without prior permission from the British. A British resident was stationed at these ruling states that had the authority to interfere in state politics. This system was suited best to the advantage of the British as, without even spending a single penny the British were able to maintain large forces. Moreover this system enabled the English to weed out the foreign influence from the Indian courts. The Nizam of Hydrabad was first to enter into a subsidiary alliance with the English in 1798 AD. He was forced to replace the French officers from his court and put English officers in their place. He also granted the territories of Bellari and Cudappah to British for the maintenance of the army. Nizam of Hydrabad was followed by the Nawab of Oudh in1801 AD .
He ceded his control over Rohilkhand, Gorakhpur, and the territories between Ganga and Yamuna to the British. The British also extended the subsidiary alliance to Peshwa Baji Rao who had to pay twentysix lakh rupees a year to the British and accept their supremacy .The Gaekwads of Baroda were the fourth Indian rulers who entered into Subsidiary Alliance. The ruler of Travancore and the Rajput states followed suit. The Indian rulers who did not accept the Subsidiary alliance voluntarily were faced with the wrath of the Britishers. A clear example is the case of Tipu Sultan of Mysore, who fought four battles with British and finally died in the battlefield trying to protect his empire from the English. The Nawab of Surat and the Nawab of Carnatic were also forced to accept the Subsidiary Alliance in the year 1801 and 1803 AD, without their consent. In retrospect, one could say that the Subsidiary Alliance System , started by Lord Wellesley, was one of the most powerful system under which the Britishers were able to annex several dominions in India and raised the East India Company to the status of a paramount power.
Q.4 Why were the British
capitalists attracted to Indian industry during the second half of the 19th
century? (5 marks)
Ans. An important development in the second half of the 19th century was the establishment of large-scale machine-based industries in India. Many cotton textiles, jute and coal mining industries were opened in this period. Such industries developed slowly but continuously. In 1879 there were 56 cotton textiles mills. By 1882 there were 20 jute mills in India. Other mechanical industries, which developed during this period, were rice, flour and timber mills. Sugar and iron and steel works were also encouraged. One common feature of all these industries was that they were owned and controlled by the British capitalists. Foreign capitalists were attracted to Indian industries by the prospects of high profits. The Indian labor was extremely cheap. The raw material was readily and easily available and for most of the goods India and its immediate neighbors provided a ready market. On the other hand, profitable investment opportunities at home were getting fewer. At the same time, the colonial government and officials were willing to provide all help and show all favours.
What change did the British introduce in the Indian army after 1858?
Ans. The Indian sepoys played a dominant role in Revolt of 1857.The British carefully reorganised the Indian army after 1857, mainly to prevent the recurrence of another revolt. Several steps were taken to minimise the capacity of Indian soldiers to revolt. The proportion of Europeans to Indians in the army was raised and fixed at one to two in Bengal armies and two to five Madras and Bombay armies. Moreover, the crucial branches of the army like the artillery and, later in the 20th century, tanks and armoured corps were put exclusively under British soldiers. The Indians were now restricted to join the officer corps.
The British used the policy of Divide and rule in
the army by discriminating the soldiers on the basis of caste, region and
religion. Communal, caste, tribal and regional loyalties were encouraged among
soldiers so that the sentiment of nationalism would not grow among them. Efforts
were also made to keep the army separated from the life and thoughts of the
civilian populace by banning the purchase of newspapers, journals and the
nationalist publications. But, despite the efforts of the British to keep its
soldiers as mercenary forces one witness that it were these forces which played
an important role in the freedom struggle later.
Q.5. What, in your view, were some negative aspects in religious reform movements of the late 19th century? Give reasons in support of your answer. (5 marks)
Ans. The socio-religious reform movement of 19th century was introduced to remove social and religious evils from the society. But some of the reform measures proved disastrous in the long run. The blind praise of ancient times and religions propagated by men like Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Swami Dayanand Saraswati etc., generated false pride and contentment, which obstructed current progress. The tendency of citing sacred texts was also contrary to rational and scientific attitude. Narrating the achievements of the ancient times and ignoring the medieval times gave rise to communalism as medieval era depicted the glories of the Muslim rulers. This created a gulf between the Hindus and Muslims in the 20th century and hindered the growth of Nationalism .The reform movements were confined to the educated middle class, as they were mostly urban-based movements. Thus a large part of the Indian population remained untouched by the reformer's activities. Despite these demerits, one must see the positive side of the reform movement, which was much stronger than the negative aspects.
What were the changes in the
British policy towards the rulers of the Indian states after 1857? What, in your
view, was the main reason for these changes?
Ans. The revolt of 1857 was a symbol of a rebellion by the Indian population against the suppression of the British rule .The princely states played an important role in the rising of the revolt. The British were so frightened with the revolt that the possibility of another uprising always haunted them. They also realised the need to create buffer states, which could aid and support British. They therefore tried to win the sympathy of the Indian rulers. They were now assured that under no circumstances their states would be taken away from them as opposed to Dalhousie's policy of "doctrine of lapse". Hindu rulers were now allowed to adopt sons. Thus the 562 Indian royal families now became loyal to the British Government. This fulfilled the ambitions of the English, as they now were able to win the support of the local rulers who had a considerable amount of Indian population under their control.
Q.6 Did the revolt of 1857
have a popular character? Give reasons in support of your answer? (5 marks)
Ans. The revolt of 1857 is shrouded in controversy. Most of the Western historians undermine the revolt by calling it a mere sepoy mutiny. These scholars include, Sir John Lawrence , Sir Quntram and P.E. Roberts.They strengthen their argument by postulating that the revolt was confined to small parts of North India and was supported by few Indian rulers who had personal animosity with the British. The peasants remained peaceful, as the revolt was mostly concentrated around the cities while the villagers remained unaffected. The Indian historians do not agree with the above view. Scholars like Vir Savarkar, Ashok mehta and other nationalist historians give a popular character to the revolt. They call it the first National movement of India where Hindus and the Muslims fought together oust the British. The participation of women has also been emphasised. The revolt was first of its kind, which engulfed large parts of India and witnessed the participation of the masses. In conclusion, the revolt should be viewed as the first uprising in India where the masses vented their discontent on the oppressors. Though the revolt failed to achieve what it had aimed yet the popular character cannot be ignored.
How and why did caste weaken
under the British rule? What did the Indian reformers do in this direction?
Ans. One of the biggest social evils of 19th century India was the caste system. Caste barriers were deep rooted in our society where an individual's caste decided his social status. However, the caste system weakened under the British rule in India. The introduction of modern industries and rapid urbanisation weakened the web of caste system. These modern industries created a strong labour force, which was forced to live in the same neighbourhood, share the same working environment and use the same eating places for daily food requirement. Thus all castes and classes came together to earn their livelihood. The western education also helped in transforming people's view. 19th century witnessed the growth of reforms related to society and religion. Most of the reformers who propagated against sati, child marriage, widow remarriage and child infanticide, belonged to upper class Hindus. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Dayanand Saraswati, Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan initiated the movement against the caste system. All the reformers attacked untouchability. The reformers and their societies endeavoured for the upliftment of the backward classes by educating them.
Q.7 What commercial interests
did the British have in Burma?
Ans. The British commercial interest in Burma were fanned by their imperialistic designs. The British merchants cast covetous glances on the forest resources of Burma and were keen to promote export of their manufactures among its people. The British authorities also wanted to check the spread of French commercial and political influence in Burma and the rest of the South East Asia.
Q.8. What is meant by 'safety
valve theory' for establishment of Indian National Congress? Do you think this
theory provide an adequate explanation for the formation of the congress? Give
reasons in support of your answers. (8 marks)
Ans. By 1870's it was evident that Indian Nationalism had gathered enough strength and momentum to appear as a major force on the Indian national political scene. Various organisations were formed in this period to start an agitation for political reform in India. In 1866, Dadabhai Naoroji formed the East India Association in London. The establishment of the Indian Association of Calcutta followed it. The time was now ripe for the formation of an All India political organisation of the Nationalists who felt the need to unite the politically against the common enemy i.e. British. Many Indians had been planning to form an all India organisation of nationalist's political workers. But the credit for giving the idea a concrete and final shape goes to A.O.Hume, a retired English civil servant.
He got in touch with prominent Indian leaders and organised with their cooperation the first session of All India National Congress at Bombay in 1885. The aim of the congress was declared to be the promotion of friendly relations between nationalist political workers of the country; to promote the feeling of national unity among them; to formulate their popular demands and to present them before the Government and the most important of all, to train and organise public opinion in the country. It has been said that Hume's main purpose in encouraging the foundation of the Congress was to provide a ''safety valve' or a safe outlet to the growing discontent among the educated Indians.
The 'safety valve' theory is, however, a small part of the truth and is totally inadequate and misleading. More than anything else, the National Congress represented the urge of the politically conscious Indians to set up an organisation to work for their political and economic advancement. No one man or group of men can be given credit for creating this movement. Even Hume's motives were mixed ones. He was also moved by the motives nobler than those of 'safety valve' were. He possessed a sincere love for India. If Hume wanted to use the Congress as the 'safety valve', the early congress leaders also hoped to use Hume as a 'lightening conductor'. The pre national Congress was formed in the later half of the 19th century, which clearly shows the rise of Organised politics in India. The Indian National Congress merely took up the political reform issue in a more organised and authoritative way.
What were the reasons for
the growth of communalism among some sections of the Muslims from the late 19th
century to early years of the 20th century? Explain with examples.
Ans. Along with the rise of Nationalism, communalism too made its appearance around the end of the 19th century and posed the biggest threat to the unity of the Indian people and the national movement. Before going into the detail of the reasons which led to the growth of communalism, one should keep in mind that communalism is a modern phenomenon, with its roots in the modern socio -economic political structure. It emerged as a result of the emergence of new modern politics based on the people and on popular participation and mobilisation. It made it necessary to have wider links and loyalties among the people and to form new identities.
The Hindus and the Muslims had fought the revolt of 1857 but after the suppression of the revolt, the British officials took vindictive attitude towards the Muslims, hanging 27,000 Muslims in Delhi alone .The Muslims were looked at with suspicion after the revolt. But this attitude of the British changed after 1870's. To check the growth of a united national feeling in the country, they decided to follow more actively the policy of 'Divide and rule' and to divide the people on religious lines, in other words to encourage communal and separatist tendencies in Indian politics .For this purpose they came decided to come out as champions of Muslim rights. The colonial government treated Hindus and Muslims as separate communities now and encouraged the propagation of virulent communal ideas and communal hatred through the press, pamphlets and public platform.
The British historians attacked the composite culture of India by propagating that in medieval period, all Muslims were rulers and non-Muslims were ruled. Due to British policy of divide and rule, modern education spread relatively late among Muslim sections.19TH century reformer, Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan played an important role in encouraging the separatist tendencies .He advised the newly educated Muslim class not to participate in Congress. He favoured the colonial government so as to obtain certain concessions for the Muslims in government jobs. He laid the foundation of Muslim communalism when in 1880's he declared that the political interests of the Hindus and the Muslims were different. The extremist section of Congress unintentionally encouraged the growth of communalism in early 20th, when they emphasised on the glories of ancient past by ignoring the medieval era.
They identified the Indian culture as the Hindu culture and revived the old Hindu festivals such as the Ganpati and Shivaji festival. This Hindu tinge in their propagandise helped the British to poison the Muslim minds .As a result, most of the Muslim population remained aloof of the National Movement of the early 20th century. These separatist tendencies among Muslims reached climax, when, in 1906, The All India Muslim League was formed by Aga Khan, the Nawab of Dhaka. It made no critique of colonialism and supported the British partition of Bengal. It also preached hatred towards Hindus and demanded special safeguards for Muslims in Government services. It also demanded separate electorates. Finally, in 1940, the Muslim League passed a resolution demanding partition of the country and creation of the state, which was to be called as Pakistan.
Q.9 Why is the Lukhnow session
(1916) of congress an important landmark in our national Movement? (5 marks)
Ans The Lukhnow session of the Indian National Congress in 1916 is an important landmark in the National movement because it united the two wings of the Congress .The old differences which had led to split between the moderates and extremist in 1907 congress session were now dissolved. The rising tide of Nationalism compelled the old moderate leaders to welcome back into the congress Lokmanya Tilak and other extremist militant nationalists. The Lukhnow session was the first united congress session since 1907. It demanded further constitutional reforms as a step towards self-governance. Secondly, at Lukhnow, the Congress and the All India Muslim League sank their old differences and put up common political demands before the Government. The unity between the Congress and the Muslim League was brought about by the signing of the Congress League Pact, known popularly as the Lukhnow Pact.This marked an important step forward in the Hindu -Muslim unity.
What were the main provisions
of the Morley Minto Reforms of 1909?
Ans. To placate the moderates the British announced the constitutional concessions over the moderates so that the extremists could be isolated and easily suppressed. To placate the moderate section of the congress after the Surat Split of 1907, the British announced the constitutional concessions through the Indian Council Act of 1909, which are also known as the Morley Minto Reforms of 1909. The Morley Minto Reforms increased the number of the elected members in the imperial legislative council and the provincial council.
The reforms also introduced the system of separate electorates under which all Muslims were grouped together in separate constituencies from which Muslims alone could be elected. This was done in the name of protecting the minority. The reforms left much to be desired. The reformed councils still enjoyed no real power, being a mere advisory body. The reform in no way changed the undemocratic and the foreign character of the British rule The system of separate electorate was based on the notion that the political and economic interests of the Hindus and the Muslims were separate. This notion was unscientific, as religion could not be the means of political groupings.
Q.10. Explain the
circumstances in which the Home rule Leagues were formed in 1915-1916. (8 marks)
Ans. In June1914, the First World War broke out in the West. In the beginning, the Indian Nationalist leaders decided to support the war efforts of their colonial Government in the mistaken belief that the grateful Britain would repay India's loyalty with gratitude and grant the right of self governance to Indians. But as the war progressed many of the Indian Nationalists realised that the colonial Government was not likely to give any real concessions unless popular pressure was brought to appear upon it. The Nationalists realised that a real mass movement was needed to pressurise the Government to fulfil the Nationalist's demands.
The World War, for the first time, destroyed the myth of racial superiority of Western nations over the Asian people. Moreover, the war led to increase misery among the Indian soldiers who were forced to fight on British side. For the poor sections of India, the war meant heavy taxation and soaring prices of the daily necessities of life. They were now ready to join any militant movement of protest to find relief. The war years were the years of intense agitation in the Indian political front but this agitation could not be carried out under the leadership of Congress, which had become, under Moderate leadership, a passive and inert political organisation.
Therefore, the two Home Rule Leagues were started in 1915-1916, one under the leadership of Lokmanya Tilak and the other under the leadership of Annie Beasent and S. Subramaniya Iyer. The two Home Leagues worked in cooperation and carried out intense propoganda all over the country in favour of the demand for self government or Home Rule to India after the War.
Q. What understanding did
the Government and the Congress reach under the Gandhi - Irvin Pact?
Ans On 31 December, 1929 AD the Tricolour was unfurled as the National Flag. 26 January 1930 was fixed as the first Independence Day, which was to be so celebrated every year . The Congress also announced the launching of the Civil-Disobedience Movement under the leadership of Gandhi. On March 1930, Gandhiji launched the second Civil-Disobedience movement by breaking the salt law at Dandi. It was an open challenge to the British rule. The agitation soon engulfed the nation and the movement took the shape of a mass uprising.
The Government retaliated by suppressing the movement in the most inhuman way. The participants of the civil-disobedience movement faced the worst kind of repression. Many of them were killed. Others were subjected to torture and open fire. Many national leaders were imprisoned. But the government's repressive policies instead of suppressing the movement, gave it a new goal and new strength. The masses demanded complete freedom. In order to appease the masses that were led by the congress, the government called a round table conference in London where Congress was also invited. The Congress boycotted this conference This non-participation of the Congress in the Round Table Conference worried the British government. It now made attempts to negotiate an agreement with the Congress so that it would attend the Round Table Conference. Finally, Viceroy Lord Irvin and Mahatma Gandhi negotiated a settlement in March 1931.
This settlement between Gandhi and Irvin is commonly known as the Gandhi-Irvin Pact. The government, under the clause of this Pact, agreed to release those political leaders from the prisons who had remained non-violent. It also conceded the right to make salt for consumption and also the right to peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shop. The Congress, on its part, suspended the Civil Disobedience Movement and agreed to take part in the Second Round Table Conference. The Gandhi-Irvin Pact was unable to satisfy many of the Congress leaders for both political and economic power continued to be concentrated in the hands of the British and the foreign rule remained as before.
Q.11 With what objective did
Gandhi start the Sabarmati Ashram? (2 marks)
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi established the Sabarmati Ashram in 1915 in Gujrat , near the banks of river Sabarmati. He wanted to make the Ashram a centre of national activity and to popularise the constructive work such as charkha, opening national schools, and promotion of national unity.
Why did Japan's emergence as a world power encourage Asian Nationalism? (2
Ans Japan transformed itself from a small East Asian country to a world power in a very short span of time. The Meiji Restoration gave birth to the rule of the Shoguns or the military generals. It marked the end of the autocratic rule of the king and paved way for Japan's progress. In late 19th century, Japan not only became a powerful nation but also joined the imperialistic nations. The Japanese example of success encouraged other Asian Nations to rise like Japan.
Describe the general causes behind the outbreak of the First World War. (5
Ans. The First World War which broke out in 1914 AD was a multi faceted war. No single cause or event could be regarded as the sole cause of the war, which engulfed the whole world. One of the most important reason which led the Capitalist nations to war was Imperialism .The mutual struggle among the Imperialist countries such as England, France, Holland, Russia, Germany, Italy etc. was linked with the conquest of the regions of Asia and Africa. Very often the disputes among these countries were solved by mutual understanding but sometimes due to conflict, warlike situations developed. Countries like Japan, Germany and Italy were late in joining the Imperialist bandwagon.
Consequently, when these countries came to power due to Industrial revolution and political and economic stability in their countries, they were not left with much choice to select colonies as most of lucrative territories in Asia and Africa were already under control of France, Britain, Holland and Russia. Thus a war was inevitable. The Franco -German rivalry over Morocco and the Anglo -German rivalry were over the colonies. The world was soon divided in power blocs as Germans under Bismarck and the Japanese started building their naval and military power. Italy and Austria joined them. This alliance is called as Triple Alliance which was formed in1882 AD. The Russians, French and the British also joined in a pact known as the Triple Entete formed in 1907. The gunpowder of the war was ready. The murder of Austrian prince, Archduke Ferdinand by a Serbia in June 1914 provided the spark, which led the World to War.
Why was the Italian invasion of Ethopia (1935) a major setback to the League of
Nations? (2 marks)
Ans. Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935 under Mussolini and his Fascist regime. The conquest of Ethiopia was completed in 1936. The Italian invasion of Ethiopia came under heavy criticism by all Asian countries but the League of Nation, with Britain, France and America as its leaders, could not take any action against Italy as they feared attack on their own countries. Thus, the invasion of Ethiopia was a major setback for the League of Nations who followed the policy of appeasement a turned a blind eye to the Ethiopian conquest.
What did Russian leaders hoped to achieve through the dictatorship of the
Proletariat? (2 marks)
Ans. The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 gave way to the rise of the proletariat under the leadership of Lenin in Russia. Its main aim was abolition of Capitalism and establishment of Socialism in Russia. The proletariat hoped to achieve democracy by removing the capitalist and introducing communal holdings under the control of the Russian Government .It aimed at introducing various reforms for upliftment workers and peasants.
Explain the rapid growth of Chinese Nationalism during and after the First World
War. (5 marks)
Ans. In China, the national awakening of the people was expressed in the emergence of a number of revolutionary organisations, which came together by forming the Chinese Revolutionary League. The president of this League was Dr. Sun-Yat-Sen., who played a leading role in the national awakening of the Chinese people and uniting the various revolutionary groups together. The League was guided by three principles.
These principles were Nationalism, Democracy and Livelihood. Dr. Sun-Yat -sen became the president of the Republican China after the 1911 revolution, which marked the end of the autocratic Manchu Rule. In Northern China, some steps were taken to make China a constitutional Monarchy under the leadership of Yuan Shi Kai, who had the dream of becoming the next emperor after the Manchus. Dr. Sun-Yat -Sen formed Guomintang or the national party against Yuan shih kai and gave a call for a second revolution. Yuan was able to suppress the Guomintang and put Sun-Yat -Sen in exile .In 1916, Yuan died and China came under the rule of warlords. When the First World War ended, the national and revolutionary movement in China entered a new phase under Sun -Yat -Sen.
were the reasons for the rise of Fascism in Germany?
Ans. After the First World War, Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles by the allies. This treaty was both harsh and unjust as it blamed Germany for the outbreak of the First World War. She was forced to loose many of her colonies in Asia and Africa. The end of the war witnessed the economic depression. The Germans were worst hit. They not only had to pay huge war indemnity but also give her resource rich territories to France. As a result, the war and the economic depression that followed created misery. Many German towns and villages ruined as its industries faced closure. There was neither food nor jobs for the population.
Germany also lost faith in its Republican Party, which accepted the Treaty of Versailles .The people, had no faith in democracy, which had led their country to humiliation, subjugation and misery. The economic crises, political instability and social problems gave rise to Adolph Hitler and the Nazi party. He succeeded in capturing power and establishing dictatorship in Germany after removing the Republicans from power. Hitler, after coming to power, promised to take revenge from the Allies for the Treaty of Versailles. This had a mass appeal for the Germans. He promised people peace, prosperity and stability under the rule of the Nazi party .The people believed in him and saw their future and happiness under Nazi Government.
Trace the growth and the development of Non-alignment movement since its
inception in1961. (8 marks)
Ans. After the Second World War, America and U.S.S.R emerged as two superpowers trying for world supremacy. The world was divided into two power blocs, The American Bloc and The Russian Bloc. The capitalist countries supported U.S.A and the communist countries supported USSR each power bloc feared that the other would emerge more powerful. The feelings of mutual hostility, tension, suspicion, fear and hatred led to Cold War between the two power blocs, which lasted for nearly three decades after the Second World War. Cold War was a period rapid growth of weapons and arsinery. New military strategies were being evolved by the powerful nations.
The race of armaments was to outdo each other at the time of confrontation. Many new nuclear and atomic bombs were created. At the same time, many countries in Asia and Africa gained their independence from colonial government and Imperialism. The power blocs wanted to draw the newly independent states in their global strategy. On the other hand, these newly created nations wanted to establish peace and stability. The national struggle in their nations against Imperialism had proved to be costly for them as it resulted in loss of life and resources. Thus, these nations further their resolve to protect them from the power blocs. This strategy of the new states came to be known as the Non-alignment movement or N.A.M .It meant no alignment with the military bloc. It simply indicated that the newly independent third world nations would not bow down to the whims of the big powers. They are independent to form their own policies and take independent positions on international issues. N.A.M is an active and constructive policy seeking to lead the world to peace, security and freedom.
It enables the non-aligned nations to judge each international issue on its merit and not on the basis of pre-determined attitude developed by alignment with one bloc or the other. Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Prime minister of India, along with President Nasser of Egypt and President Tito of Yugoslavia played an important role in the emergence of the Non-alignment movement. The 29 nation Afro -Asian non aligned nation was held at Bandung in April, 1955.It stresses on International cooperation, disarmament and reduction of international tension .The ideas pronounced in Bandung were given practical shape at Belgrade in June1956. After 1961, ten more conferences of the non-aligned nations have been held respectively at Cairo, Algiers, Lusaka, Havana, New Delhi, and Jakarta etc. From the humble beginning of only 25 members in 1961 it has enrolled 108 in its tenth conference held at Jakarta held in September 1992. South Africa became the member of N.A.M in 1994. In 1995,in the eleventh summit of the N.A.M conference, at Cartegena the membership of N.A.M rose to 113. The rising number of the non-aligned countries clearly show a trend away from militarism and world coming closer to maintain peace.
major conferences held by the Allies between 1940 and 1945 . What were the main
causes discussed at these conferences?
Ans The Second World War proved to be the most disastrous war in the history of the mankind. It led to unimaginable loss of human life and property. Accordingly, attempts began to be made to restore peace and stability in the world. The weakness of the League of Nations, an organisation that was created for restoring peace after First World War, was now exposed. In August 1941, the British Prime Minister Churchill and the American president Theodore Roosevelt together signed a charter popularly known as the Atlantic Charter. It declared that all nationalities had right to be free and autonomous and all nations had the right of self-determination.
The principles underlying the Atlantic Charter were recognised later in the United Nations Declaration agreed by about 25 Allies in January 1992 AD In October 1943, another conference was held. It was presided over by the foreign minister of the U.S.A, U.S.SR, Britain and China. This conference took place in Moscow. In this conference the signatories affirmed that a new international Organisation should be formed on the basis of the principle of sovereign equality of all nations so that the peace and security of the World could be preserved. It was in Moscow that the foundation of the U.N was laid.
In the year 1944, in October, the Dumbarton Oaks conference was held to plan an international security organisation to protect the world from threats of war. In 1945, the heads of the states of U.S.A, Britain and U.S.S.R met at Yalta and agreed to convene a session of United Nations. On the basis of this conference, 51-member nation met at SanFransisco in U.S.A. The conference was held from April to June 1945 and signed the UN charter. This is how the United Nation Organisation was formed .The U.N.O had been doing commendable job in the direction of the World peace since its formation. It has helped various countries to solve mutual conflicts .It ha splayed significant role in averting war in many cases .It ha saved world from many catastrophes of the Third World War by solving problems in Korea, Indo China, Palestine, Laos etc.
What were the reasons for the crisis over Berlin in 1945?
Ans. Germany was divided into separate parts in 1949. East Germany came under Russian dominance, which was called as German democratic republic with its capital at Berlin. West Germany came under the dominance of England, France and U.S.A. . It came to be known as the Federal Republic of Germany with its capital at Bonn. . Both these newly created states followed its own pattern of social, economic and political life. This system continued for almost four decades. But such a division of German nation was a great source of tension for its nationals as well as the powers, which controlled these nationals.
Infact, this division became a major factor for the cold war. In 1961, the German democratic republic erected a wall between east and West Berlin to stop free movement of its residents. But in 1989, under the leadership of President Mikhail Gorbachev, the Berlin wall was opened. The decline of communism in Russia affected the German democratic republic too. In the 1990 elections the communist rule of German Democratic Party came to an end. Finally, in 1990 both the independent states of western and eastern Germany were united as one.
the factors responsible for the rapid collapse of Imperialism after the Second
Ans. Numerous factors were responsible for the collapse of Imperialism after the Second World War. The chiefs among them however were: The change in international politics in the post war period. The imperialists had suffered great and irreparable loss of human life and property during the war years. hence after the war , they were not strong enough to keep the struggling third world countries under them . On the other hand, the weakness of the imperial countries was exposed for the third world countries.
Both the Asian and African countries were ripe with nationalist party organisations which demanded freedom from colonial rule. Those countries that which won their freedom by the end of the Second World War actively supported the cause of the nations still under imperial control. Post war period saw the rise of U.S.S.R as a major world power, second only to U.S.A. It influenced and encouraged many countries to adopt communism. Poland, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria etc adopted socialism after securing their freedom. Communism was the biggest threat to Imperialism and capitalism. Thus, one could say that U.S.S.R played an important role in curbing imperialism.
Why did America become an important centre for artistic and literary works after
the First World War? (2 marks)
Ans. The American literature acquired its independent national identity after the First World War. The reasons for this were the growth of material prosperity, industrial advancement and political power which attracted a host of European writers and intellectuals to the United States of America, which served as the principal abode of refuge for those who had fled Europe as well as other immigrants. This resulted in the American literature taking on a complexion different from that of the contemporary European literature.
Why is the year 1960 known as the African year?
Ans The year 1960 is rightly known as the African Year because many of the African countries attained their freedom from Western imperialism in this year. The number of countries which attained independence in 1960 were seventeen. They included Mali, Chad, Niger, Ivory Coast, Senegal etc.
How was the Darwinian theory of evolution wrongly applied by some people?
Ans. Darwin's theory of survival of the fittest explained the origin of man as an outcome of a gradual process of biological evolution. It was however, distorted by some people who applied to human affairs. They advocated the view that struggle for existence meant that war and exploitation were integral part of natural order of the world and that survival of fittest proved that the upper classes dominated society because they were the fittest and had the right to rule over the rest.
is meant by Meiji Restoration?
Ans. The 19th Century witnessed the growth of Japan as an imperialistic power. Japan made much progress on all sides, especially in its industrial, military as well its imperialistic expansion. The Japanese progress in the 19th century can be attributed to the Meiji ear (1867-1902). In 1868 the rule of the military generals or the Shoguns ended and emperor Mitshito was restored his powers. This event is known as the Meiji restoration.
What themes would you commonly find in the paintings of Raja Ravi Verma? (2
Ans. Raja Ravi Verma was a well-known Indian painter. His work is world famous Even in the 21st century. He mixed the Royal Academy naturalism with Indian myths and legends. He painted anecdotes from Sanskrit literature.