(Download) NIOS Syllabus Of Physics Senior Secondary
Physical is a fundamental science because it deals with such basic feature of
the world as
time, space, motion matte, electricity, light and radiations. Every event that
occurs in the
natural world has some feature that can be viewed in these terms. Study of
not necessarily be taken as means of becoming a physicist; it is a means of
understanding nature. Physics lies behind all technological advancement such as
computer, internet, lunching of rockets and satellites, radios and TV
lasers, etc. It also finds applications in such simple activities of men as
lifting a heavy
weight or making a long jump. Physics is thus an all-pervading science and its
helps us in finding answers to questions like why and how?
In order to bring out various aspects of Physics as a fundamental science the
the present syllabus has been so chosen as to relate with the study of natural
phenomenon. The underlying physical laws and principles of such phenomena and
effects on daily life have been reflected in the syllabus. Themes like motion,
of matter, energies like heat, light and electricity and electronics with would
be of interest
to all and specially to those who are interested in pursuing Physics as a career
selected to from our content. The syllabus also includes such emerging areas as
electronics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, medical physics and photography,
immense applications in daily life.
Though mathematics is basic to the understanding of most of the problems of
the present course stress has been given to avoid rigour or mathematics like
and differentiation. The focus has been to teach concepts of physics rather than
This course attempts.
acquire knowledge and develop understanding of concepts, fundamental
principles and processes in the area of physics so that relationship between
and effects of physical phenomenon can be understood;
appreciate the contributions of physics towards improving quality of lice;
promote interest in physics and foster a spirit of
improve competencies of individuals in work skills required in their
As a part of this process, the course also aims at developing the following
abilities in the
experimental skills (like taking observations, manipulation of equipment)
communicative skills such as reporting of observations and experimental result;
problems solving ability e.g. analyzing a situation or data, establishing
between cause and effects:
scientific temper of mind by making judgment on verified facts and not
showing willingness to accept new ideas and discoveries: and
awareness of the dangers inherent in the possible misuse of scientific
Structure of the Syllabus
The syllabus in physics includes two parts-core modules and optional modules.
modules comprises of the essential concepts and phenomenon of physics, which a
at this level should know. It has eight core modules, which contain
subject matter of mechanics, electricity, light and other areas of physics
minimum knowledge required to progress into the more advanced areas and to
appreciation for the fact that physics plays a significant role in most
optional modules are on the specific fields and have four modules one each on
Astrophysics, Electronics, Photography and Audio-Videography and Medical
the optional modules there is a choice to opt any one of the given four modules.
(A) CORE MODULES
Min. Study Time
|1. Motion, force and Energy
|2. Properties of Matter
|3. Heat and Thermodynamics
|4. Electricity and Magnetism
|5. Oscillations and Waves
|6. Optics and Optical Instruments
|7. Atoms and Nuclei
|8. Semiconductors and their Applications
(B) OPTIONAL MODULES
(One Module – 10 Marks Each and 30 hrs.)
Min. Study Time
|3. Photography and Audio-Videography
|4. Physics in Medical Sciences
The details of Curriculum is given below:
MODULE 1: MOTION, FORCE AND ENERGY
Unit 1: Dimensional Analysis and Vectors
(iii) Dimensional formula
(iv) Application of dimensional equations
(v) Vectors and their representation (graphically)
(vi) Resolution of vectors in to rectangular components (two dimensions)
(vii) Addition and subtraction of vectors
Unit 2: Motion in a Straight Line
(i) Distance and displacement,
(ii) Speed and Velocity with special reference to average and relative velocity
(iii) Instantaneous velocity
(iv) Uniform motion with examples.
(v) Non-uniform motion (constant acceleration) with examples.
(vi) Graphical representation of motion in two dimensions (including that of
(vii) Equations of Motion with numerical problems.
Unit 3: Newton’s Laws of Motion
(i) Concept of force and inertia
(ii) First law of motion with examples
(iii) Second law of motion with concept of momentum and force.
(iv) Third law of motion with examples.
(v) Free body diagram.
(vi) Conservation of linear momentum
(vii) Friction and lubrication
Unit 4: Motion in a Plane
(i) Projectile motion (equation, time of fight, rang, and maximum height)
(ii) Uniform circular motion (radial and tangential acceleration)
(iii) Centripetal acceleration
(iv) Application of circular motion
(v) Uniformly rotating frame of reference and non-inertial force (centrifugal
(vi) Relation between velocity and angular velocity
Unit 5: Gravitational motion
(i) Newton’s universal law of gravitation.
(ii) Inertial mass and gravitational mass.
(iii) Acceleration due to gravity and its variation.
(iv) Kepler’s laws.
(v) Motion of planets, orbital and escape velocity.
(vi) Satellites – geostationary, weightlessness.
Unit 6: Work, Energy and Power
(i) Work done by a constant force.
(ii) Work done by a carrying force (graphical method) with example of spring.
(iii) Work-energy relation
(iv) Conservative and non-conservative force.
(v) Mechanical energy (kinetic and potential) with examples.
(vi) Conservation of energy, (spring, pendulum, etc.)
(vii) Elastic and inelastic collision
(viii) Power and its units.
Unit 7: Rotational Motion
(i) Rigid body motion, center of mass, couple and Torque.
(ii) Moment of inertia, radius of gyration and its significance.
(iii) Theorems of Motion for a uniformly rotating rigid body (no derivation)
(iv) Angular momentum and its conservation with simple application.
(v) Rotational and translational motions with example (motion of ball, cylinder,
flywheel on an inclined plane.
MODULE 2: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Unit 1: Properties of solids
(i) Elastic properties and hook’s law.
(ii) Young’s modules, Bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity and compressibility.
(iii) Applications of elasticity-cantilever, girder etc.
Unit 2: Properties of Liquids
(i) Hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy.
(ii) Pascal’s law and its application
(iii) Forces of Cohesion and adhesion
(iv) Surface energy and surface Tension.
(v) Angle of contact and capillary action.
(vi) Application of surface tension, liquid drops, bubbles and detergents
(vii) Types of liquid flow-laminar and turbulent, Reynolds number,
(viii) Viscosity and Stoke’s law.
(ix) Bernoulli’s Theorem (no derivation) and its applications.
Unit 3: Properties of Gases
(i) Kinetic theory of gases (with derivation of ideal gas equation state)
(ii) K. E. and temperature relationship
(iii) Specific heat of gases, equilibrium of heat.
(iv) Specific heats Cp and C v and their relationship.
MODULE 3: HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS
Unit 1: Laws of thermodynamics
(i) Thermodynamic variables, concept of hear, and thermodynamic equilibrium.
(ii) Temperature and its measurement.
(iii) Principle of Calorimetery.
(iv) Thermodynamic processes – isothermal, adiabatic, reversible, irreversible
(v) First law of thermodynamics – internal energy
(vi) Second change, phase diagram, latent heat, triple point, and concept of
(vii) Carnot’s Cycle and its Efficiency.
Unit 2: Transfer of Heat
(i) Conduction of Heat
(ii) Convection of Heat
(iii) Radiation of Heat
(iv) Black Body Radiation
(v) Wien’s Law
(vi) Stefan’s Law
(vii) Green House Effect
(viii) Newton’s Law of Cooling.
MODULE 4: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
Unit 1: Electrostatics
(i) Properties of electric charge-quantizations & conservation.
(ii) Coulomb’s law (vector form)
(iii) Electric field and field or point charge (through diagram)
(iv) Force in and charged particle in electric field.
(v) Electric field of a dipole and dipole moment
(vi) Behavior of electric dipole in uniform electric field.
(vii) Electric Potential due to appoint charge, due to a dipole and potential
(viii) Relation between electric field and potential
(ix) Statement and use of Gauss theorem Determining electric field of a point
ling wire, plane sheet, solid sphere, spherical shell.
(x) Conductors, and field inside conductor, electrostatic shielding.
(xi) Capacitors and their combinations
(xii) Dielectric and their polarization
(xiii) Electric field in dielectric, capacitor with dielectric.
Unit 2: Electric Current
(i) Electric current in a conductor
(ii) Ohm’s law, Resistivity of material and Colour coding of resistors.
(iii) Combination of resistances (series and parallel)
(iv) Kirchoff’s laws and their application to electrical circuits
(v) Wheatstone bridge principle
(vi) Potentiometer and its application
Unit 3: Chemical and Thermal Effects of Electric Current
(i) Heating effect of electric current, joules law of heating
(ii) Electrolysis – Faraday’s laws of electrolysis and their application
(iii) Thermoelectricity (Seabeck, peltier and Thomson effect (only qualitative)
Unit 4: Magnetic Effect of Electric Current
(i) Magnetic effect of electric current
(ii) Bio-Savart law – Magnetic field at the center of a coil carrying current
(iii) Amprere’s circuital law and its application in finding magnetic field of a
loop (at a center), toroid and solenoid.
(iv) Force on a current carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field and definition
(v) Force on a charged particle in a magnetic field and Lorentz force.
(vi) Magnetic dipole moment of a current loop
(vii) Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.
(viii) Moving coil Galvanometer and its conversion into ammeter and voltmeter.
Unit 5: Magnetism
(i) Magnet and magnetic field
(ii) Components of Earth’s magnetic field
(iii) Molecular theory of magnetism (qualitatively)
(iv) Dia, para and Ferro magnetic materials
Unit 6: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current
(i) Faraday’s law of electro-magnetic induction
(ii) Lenz’s law
(iii) Self and mutual induction
(iv) Growth and decay of current in L. R and CR circuits (qualitative)
(v) Alternating current and voltage, illustrating with phase diagram – Peak and
(vi) Circuits containing only R. L or C separately, their phase relationship
(vii) Power in AC circuit – Power factor and watts current (pure inductor and
(viii) LCR series combination (using phaser diagram only) and resonance
Unit 7: Electric Power Generation and its Transmission
(i) Generators – AC and DC
(iii) Transmission of power (domestic and industrial distribution)
(iv) Various energy sources, electrical power generation – hydro-electricity,
energy, molecular energy, wind energy and solar energy.
(v) Status of Electric power in India.
(vi) Problem of low voltage and load shedding.
MODULE 5: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES
Unit 1: Simple Harmonic Motion
(i) Periodic motion – amplitude, period frequency and phase
(ii) Simple Harmonic Motion as a projection of uniform circular motion with
examples of spring and simple pendulum.
(iii) Forced oscillations – resonance with examples.
(iv) Damped oscillations with example (without mathematics)
Unit 2: Elastic Waves
(i) Moving pulse, harmonic waves, wavelength, frequency, speed and their
relationship, amplitude of wave
(ii) Wave motion in taut string, formula for its speed.
(iii) Wave motion in gaseous medium and formula for its speed.
(iv) Phase difference between two harmonic waves.
(v) Superposition of waves – interference of waves, reflection of waves from
boundary, standing waves and beast (only qualitative treatment, with equation)
(vi) Characteristics of sound waves.
(vii) Threshold of hearing, intensity of sound and its unit.
(viii) Shock waves, noise pollution.
(ix) Resonance column (overtones and harmonics) only through diagram
(x) Doppler’s effect and its application.
MODULE 6: OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
Unit 1: Reflection and Refraction of Light
(i) Reflection of light from spherical mirrors, sign convention.
(ii) Mirror formulae and problems based on it
(iii) Reflection of light, Snell’s law of refraction
(iv) Total Internal Reflection and its application.
(v) Refraction through single curved surface and lenses.
(vi) Lens maker’s formula and magnification
(vii) Power of lens.
(viii) Combination of lenses.
Unit 2: Dispersion and Scattering of Light
(i) Dispersion of light through prism
(ii) Spectrometer and its uses
(iii) Spherical and chromatic aberration.
(iv) Scattering of light in atmosphere
Unit 3: Electromagnetic waves
(i) Maxwell’s theory of em-waves.
(ii) Properties of em-waves
(iii) Em-waves spectra
(iv) Em-waves propagation and their application
Unit 4: Wave Properties of Light
(i) Nature of light
(ii) Light as wave
(iii) Huygen’s wave theory and wave propagation – reflection and refraction
(iv) Interference – Young’s double slit experiment
(v) Diffraction of light (qualitative)
(vi) Polarization, polarization by reflection and its application in daily life
Unit 5: Optical instruments
(i) Compound microscope and its magnifying power
(ii) Telescope – astronomical (Newton’s reflector) and terrestrial
(iii) Resolving power in terms of Rayleigh’s criteria
(iv) Resolving power of eye, telescope and microscope
MODULE 7: ATOMS AN NUCLEI
Unit 1: Structure of Atom
(i) Alpha –particle scattering and Rutherford’s atomic model
(ii) Bohr’s atomic model, energy levels in electron volts
(iii) Hydrogen Spectrum
Unit 2: Photoelectric Effect and Mater Waves
(i) Emission of electrons
(ii) Photoelectric effect and its explanation
(iii) Photocell and its applications
(iv) Wave nature of matter, de-Broglie Waves – Davission and Germer Experiment
Unit 3: Nuclei and Radio - Activities
(i) Atomic mass unit, mass number, size of nucleus
(ii) Isotopes and neutrons
(iii) Mass-energy equivalence (MeV)
(iv) Mass defect and binding – energy curve
(v) Radio activity - α, β decay and γ emission
(vi) Half life and decay constant of nuclei
(vii) Application of radioactivity in carbon dating, medical and agriculture.
Unit 4: Nuclear Fission and Fusion
(i) Fission reaction
(ii) Fusion reaction
(iii) Energy in stars
(iv) Nuclear reactor
(v) Peaceful and destructive application of Nuclear Energy.
(vi) Nuclear Pollution
MODULE 8: SEMICONDUCTORS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
Unit 1: Basics of Semiconductors
(i) Energy bands in solids
(ii) Conductors, insulators, and semiconductors (on the basis of electrical
(iii) Charge carries in semiconductors-Holes and electrons
(iv) Electrical conductivity of semiconductors
(v) Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors
(vi) P-type and n-type semiconductors.
Unit 2: Semiconductor Devices
(i) Pn – junction diode
(ii) Characteristic of pn-junction diode
(iii) Types of diode
(iv) Transistor – pup and npn
(v) Characteristic curves of transistor
Unit 3: Applications of semiconductor Device
(i) Pn-junction diode as a rectifier
(ii) Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter)
(iii) Transistor as a switching device
(iv) Logic gates and their realization (OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR)
OPTIONAL MODULE 1: ASTRO PHYSICS.
Unit 1: The Sun and the Solar Family
(i) The Sun – introduction
(ii) Interesting phenomenon on solar atmosphere – corona.
(iii) Magnetic field in the solar system
(iv) Sunspot cycle, granulation on solar surface, solar flares, prominence
(v) Planets and their characteristics.
(vi) Comets, meteors, meteoroids and asteroids
(vii) Evaluation of solar system.
Unit 2: Astronomical Telescopes
(i) Windows in electro – magnetic spectrum
(ii) Principle and use of refraction and reflecting telescope
(iii) Newtonian and Cassegrainian telescopes- their principles and uses
(iv) X-ray telescope and radio – telescope
(v) Spherical aberration
(vi) Rayleigh’s criterion
Unit 3: Stars
(i) Measuring distances and masses of stars
(ii) Brightness of stars
(iii) Surface temperature of Stars
(iv) Stellar spectra, stellar classification
(v) H. R. diagram
(vi) Evaluation of stars – different theories
Unit 4: Universe
(i) Our galaxy
(ii) Interstellar gas clouds
(iii) Structure of the galaxy, central bulge, disc of the galaxy
(iv) Halo and corona
(v) External galaxies
(vi) The expanding universe
(vii) Origin of the universe, evolving universe, steady state universe, cosmic
ground radiation, open or closed universe
MODULES 2: ELECTRONICS IN DAILY LIFE
Unit 1: Measuring Instruments in Electronics
(i) Multimeter principle and its uses.
(ii) C R O and its uses for measurement of voltage, frequency and wave form.
(iii) Transducers and their application
(iv) Display Device –L E D, L E D and their uses
Unit 2: Power Supply and Signal Generating Systems
(i) Solar cells and their uses
(ii) Frequency generator, power supply inverters, emergency light
(iii) Zener diode as a voltage regulator
Unit 3: Microprocessor and its Applications
(i) Microprocessor – architecture and functional blocks
(ii) Instructions – data transfer, control and branch, and input – output
(iii) Uses of microprocessor in household devices.
Unit 4: Circuit Breaker, Timer and Power Control
(i) Electronic circuit breaker
(ii) Timers, M C B power control.
(iii) Calculator and Electronic watches –principle and operations