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CBSE Class-11 Syllabus 2018-19 (Hindi Elective)

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CBSE Class-11 Syllabus 2018-19 (Hindi Elective)

प्रस्तावना :

उच्चतर माध्यमिक स्तर में प्रवेश लेने वाला विद्यार्थी पहली बार सामान्य मशक्षा से ववशेष अनुशासन की मशक्षा की ओर उन्मुख होता है। दस वषों में विद्यार्थी भाषा के कौशलों से पररचचत हो जाता है। भाषा और साहहत्य के स्तर पर उसका दायरा अब घर, पास-पडोस, स्कूल, प्राांत और देश से होता हुआ धीरे-धीरे ववश्व तक फैल जाता है। वह इस उम्र में पहुुँच चुका है कक देश की साांस्कृततक, सामाजजक, राजनीततक और आचर्थिक समस्याओां पर विचार -ववमश ि कर सके , एक जज म्मेदार नागररक की तरह अपनी जज म्मदे ाररयों को समझ सके तर्था देश और खुद को सही हदशा दे सकने में भाषा की ताकत को पहचान सके। ऐसे दृढ़ भावषक और वैचाररक आधार के सार्थ जब विद्यार्थी आता है तो उसे ववमशि की भाषा के रूप में हहांदी की व्यापक समझ और प्रयोग में दक्ष बनाना सबसे पहला उद् देश्य होगा। ककशोरावस्र्था से युवावस्र्था के इस नाजुक मोड पर ककसी भी ववषय का चुनाव करते समय बच्चे और उनके अमभभावक इस बात को लेकर सबसे अचधक चचतां तत रहत े हैं कक चयतनत ववषय उनके भावी कै ररयर और जीववका के अवसरों में मदद करेगा कक नहीां। इस उम्र के ववद्याचर्थयि ों में चचतां न और तनर्िय करने की प्रवृजत्त भी प्रबल होती है। इसी आधार पर वे अपने मानमसक, सामाजजक, बौद् चधक और भावषक ववकास के प्रतत भी सचेत होते हैं और अपने भावी अध्ययन की हदशा तय करते हैं। इस स्तर पर ऐजच्िक हहांदी का अध्ययन एक सृजनात्मक, साहहजत्यक, साांस्कृततक और ववमभन्न प्रयुजततयों की भाषा के रूप में होगा। इस बात पर भी बल हदया जाएगा कक तनरांतर ववकमसत होती हहांदी के
अखखल भारतीय स्वरूप से बच्चे का ररश्ता बन सके।

इस स्तर पर ववद्याचर्थियों में भाषा के मलखखत प्रयोग के सार्थ-सार्थ उसके मौखखक प्रयोग की कुशलता और दक्षता का ववकास भी जरूरी है। प्रयास यह भी होगा कक विद्यार्थी अपने बबखरे हुए विचार ों और भावों की सहज और मौमलक अमभव्यजतत की क्षमता हामसल कर सके।

इस पाठ्यक्रम के अध्ययन से :

1. विद्यार्थी अपनी रुचच और आवश्यकता के अनुरूप साहहत्य का गहन और ववशेष अध्ययन जारी रख सकें गे।
2. ववश्वववद्यालय स्तर पर तनधािररत हहांदी-साहहत्य से सांबांचधत पाठ्यक्रम के सार्थ सहज सांबांध स्र्थावपत कर सकें गे।
3. लेखन-कौशल के व्यावहाररक और सृजनात्मक रूपों की अमभव्यजतत में सक्षम हो सकें गे।
4. रोजगार के ककसी भी क्षेत्र में जाने पर भाषा का प्रयोग प्रभावी ढांग से कर सकें गे।
5 यह पाठ्यक्रम विद्यार्थी को सांचार तर्था प्रकाशन जैसे ववमभन्न-क्षेत्रों में अपनी क्षमता व्यतत करने का अवसर प्रदान कर सकता है।

Click Here To Download Full Syllabus

GENERAL: 

CBSE Class-11 Syllabus 2018-19 (Hindi Core)

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CBSE Class-11 Syllabus 2018-19 (Hindi Core)

प्रस्तावना :

दसवीं  कक्षा तक हिंदी का अध्ययन करने वाला विद्यार्थी समझते हुए पढ़ने व सुनने के साथ-साथ हिंदी में सोचने और उसे मौखिक एवं लिखित रूप में व्यक्त कर पाने की सामान्य दक्षता अर्जित कर चुका होता है। उच्चतर माध्यमिक स्तर पर आने के बाद इन सभ दक्षताओीं को सामान्य से ऊपर उस स्तर तक ले जाने की आवश्यकता होत है, जहााँ भाषा का प्रयोग भिन्न-भिन्न व्यवहार-क्षेत्रों की माींगों के अनुरूप ककया जा सके। आधार पाठ्यक्रम, साहहर्ययक बोध के साथ-साथ भाषाई दक्षता के विकास को ज्यादा महययव देता है। यह पाठ्यक्रम उन विद्यार्थियों के ललए उपयोग साबबत होगा, जो आगे ववश्वववद्यालय में अध्ययन करते हुए हिंदी को एक ववषय के रूप में पढ़ेंगे या ववज्ञान/सामार्जक ववज्ञान के ककस ववषय को हिंदी माध्यम से पढ़ना चाहेंगे। यह उनके ललए भ उपयोग साबबत होगा, जो उच्चतर माध्यमिक स्तर की लिक्षा के बाद ककस तरह के रोजगार में लग जाएींगे। वहााँ कामकाज हिंदी का आधारभूत अध्ययन काम आएगा। र्जन विद्यार्थियों की रुर्च जनसींचार माध्यमों में होग , उनके ललए यह पाठ्यक्रम एक आरींलभक पृष्ठभूलम ननलमित करेगा। इसके साथ ही यह पाठ्यक्रम सामान्य रूप से तरह-तरह के साहहयय के साथ विद्यार्थियों के सींबींध को सहज बनाएगा। विद्यार्थी भावषक अलभव्यर्क्त के सूक्ष्म एवं जहिल रूपों से पररर्चत हो सकें गे। वे यर्थार्थि को अपने विचारो में व्यवर्स्र्थत करने के साधन के तौर पर भाषा का अर्धक साथिक उपयोग कर पाएाँगे और उनमें जीवन के प्रनत मानव य सींवेदना एवं सम्यक् दृष्टि का विकास हो सकेगा।

उद् देश्य :

  • इन माध्यमों और ववधाओीं के ललए उपयुक्त भाषा प्रयोग की इतन क्षमता उनमें आ
  • चुकी होग कक वे स्वयीं इससे जुडे उच्चतर पाठ्यक्रमों को समझ सकें गे।
  • सामार्जक हहींसा की भावषक अलभव्यर्क्त की समझ।
  • भाषा के अींदर सकक्रय सयता सींबींध की समझ।
  • सृजनायमक साहहयय को सराह पाने और उसका आनींद उठाने की क्षमता का विकास तर्था भाषा में सौंदयाियमकता उयपन्न करने वाली सृजनायमक युर्क्तयों की सींवेदना का विकास।
  • विद्यार्थियों के भीतर सभ प्रकार की विविधताओं (धम, जाति , लिंग , क्षेत्र एवं भाषा सींबींध ) के प्रनत सकारायमक एवं वववेकपूर्ि रवैये का विकास।
  • पठन-सामग्र को भिन्न-भिन्न कोरो से अलग-अलग सामार्जक, साींस्कृ नतक र्चतीं ाओीं के पररप्रेक्ष्य में देिने का अभ्यास कराना तर्था दृष्टि कोर् की एकाींर्गकता के प्रनत
  • आलोचनायमक दृष्टि का विकास करना।

Click Here To Download Full Syllabus

GENERAL: 
Subjects: 

CBSE Class-11 Syllabus 2018-19 (English Elective)

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CBSE Class-11 Syllabus 2018-19 (English Elective)

 

Background

The course is intended to give students a high level of competence in English with an emphasis on the study of literary texts. The course will provide extensive exposure to a variety of rich texts of world literature as well as Indian writings in English, including classics; develop sensitivity to the creative and imaginative use of English and give them a taste for reading with delight and discernment. The course is primarily designed to equip the students to pursue higher studies in English literature and English language at the college level.

Objectives

The general objectives at this stage are:

i) to provide extensive exposure to a variety of writings in English, including some classics to develop sensitivity to literary and creative uses of the language.
ii) to further expand the learners' vocabulary resources through the use of dictionary, thesaurus and encyclopaedia.
iii) to develop a taste for reading with discernment and delight.
iv) to critically examine a text and comment on different aspects.
v) to develop proficiency in English both in receptive and productive skills.
At the end of this course, the learner
i) grasps the global meaning of the text, its gist and understands how its theme and sub-themes relate.
ii) relates to the details provided in the text, for example, how the details support a generalization or the conclusion either by classification or by contrast and comparison.
iii) comprehends details, locates and identifies facts, arguments, logical relationships, generalization, conclusion, in the texts.
iv) draws inferences, supplies missing details, predicts outcomes, grasps the significance of particular details and interprets texts.
v) assesses and analyzes the point of view of the author.
vi) infers the meanings of words and phrases from the context; differentiates between apparent synonyms.
vii) appreciates stylistic nuances, the lexical structure; its literal and figurative uses and analyses a variety of texts.
viii) identifies different styles of writing like humorous, satirical, contemplative, ironical and burlesque.
ix) can produce text-based writing (writing in response to questions or tasks based on prescribed as well as 'unseen' texts)
x) develops the advanced skills of reasoning, inferring, analysing, evaluating and creating.
xi) develops familiarity with the poetic uses of language including features of the language through which artistic effect is achieved.

Methods and Techniques

The techniques used for teaching should promote habits of self-learning and reduce dependence on the teacher. The multi-skill, learner-centred, activity-based approach already recommended for the previous stages of education, is still in place, though it will be used in such a way that silent reading of prescribed selected texts for comprehension will receive greater focus as one of the activities. Learners will be trained to read independently and intelligently, interacting actively with texts and other reference materials (dictionary, thesaurus, encyclopedia, etc.) where necessary. Some pre-reading activity will generally be required, and course books suggest those activities. The reading of texts should be followed by post reading activities. It is important to remember that every text can generate different reading strategies. Students should be encouraged to interpret texts in different ways, understand the views of others and present their views on a literary text. Some projects may be assigned to students from time to time, for instance, students may be asked to put together a few literary pieces on a given theme.

Click Here To Download Full Syllabus

GENERAL: 
Subjects: 

CBSE Class-11 Syllabus 2018-19 (English Core)

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CBSE Class-11 Syllabus 2018-19 (English Core)

Background

Students are expected to have acquired a reasonable degree of language proficiency in English by the time they come to class XI, and the course will aim, essentially, at promoting the higher-order language skills. For a large number of students, the higher secondary stage will be a preparation for the university, where a fairly high degree of proficiency in English may be required. But for another large group, the higher secondary stage may be a preparation for entry into the world of work. The Core Course should cater to both groups by promoting the language skills required for academic study as well as the language skills required for the workplace.

Objectives

The general objectives at this stage are:

to listen and comprehend live as well as record in writing oral presentations on a variety of topics

to develop greater confidence and proficiency in the use of language skills necessary for social and academic purpose to participate in group discussions, interviews by making short oral presentation on given topics to perceive the overall meaning and organisation of the text (i.e., the relationships of the different "chunks" in the text to each other

to identify the central/main point and supporting details, etc.,

to build communicative competence in various registers of English to promote advanced language skills with an aim to develop the skills of reasoning, drawing inferences, etc. through meaningful activities to translate texts from mother tongue(s) into English and vice versa

to develop ability and knowledge required in order to engage in independent reflection and enquiry At the end of this stage learners will be able to do the following: read and comprehend extended texts (prescribed and non-prescribed) in the following genres: science fiction, drama, poetry, biography, autobiography, travel and sports literature, etc. text-based writing (i.e., writing in response to questions or tasks based on prescribed or unseen texts) understand and respond to lectures, speeches, etc. write expository / argumentative essays, explaining or developing a topic, arguing a case, etc. write formal/informal letters and applications for different purposes write items related

to the workplace (minutes, memoranda, notices, summaries, reports etc. filling up of forms, preparing CV, e-mail messages., making notes from reference materials, recorded talks etc. The core course should draw upon the language items suggested for class IX-X and delve deeper into their usage and functions. Particular attention may, however, be given to the following areas of grammar:
The use of passive forms in scientific and innovative writings.

Converting one kind of sentence/clause into a different kind of structure as well as other items to exemplify stylistic variations in different discourses modal auxiliaries-uses based on semantic considerations.

Specific Objectives of Reading

Students are expected to develop the following study skills:
refer to dictionaries, encyclopaedia, thesaurus and academic reference material select and extract relevant information, using reading skills of skimming and scanning
understand the writer's attitude and bias comprehend the difference between what is said and what is implied understand the language of propaganda and persuasion
differentiate between claims and realities, facts and opinions form business opinions on the basis of latest trends available comprehend technical language as required in computer related fields arrive at personal conclusion and comment on a given text specifically develop the ability to be original and creative in interpreting opinion develop the ability to be logically persuasive in defending one's opinion making notes based on a text Develop literary skills as enumerated below:

personally respond to literary texts appreciate and analyse special features of languages that differentiate literary texts from non-literary ones explore and evaluate features of character, plot, setting, etc. understand and appreciate the oral, mobile and visual elements of drama identify the elements of style such as humour, pathos, satire and irony, etc. make notes from various resources for the purpose of developing the extracted ideas into sustained pieces of writing

Listening and Speaking

Speaking needs a very strong emphasis and is an important objective leading to professional competence. Hence, testing of oral skills must be made an important component of the overall testing pattern. To this end, speaking and listening skills are overtly built into the material to guide the teachers in actualization of the skills.

Specific Objectives of Listening

Students are expected to develop the ability:
to listen to lectures and talks and to be able to extract relevant and useful information for a specific purpose.
to listen to news bulletins and to develop the ability to discuss informally on a wide ranging issues like current national and international affairs, sports, business, etc.
to respond in interviews and to participate in formal group discussions.
to make enquiries meaningfully and adequately and to respond to enquiries for the purpose of travelling within the country and abroad

Click Here To Download Full Syllabus

GENERAL: 
Subjects: 

CBSE Class-11 (XI) 

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CBSE Class-11 (XI) 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Fine Arts)

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CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Fine Arts)

 

A student  may offer any one of the following courses :

(a) Painting (Code No. 049)

OR

(b) Graphics (Code No. 050)

OR

(a) Sculpture (Code No. 051)

OR

(b)  Applied Art- Commercial Art (Code No. 052)

The following art terminologies for all  the four subject are prescribed only for reference and general enrichment. 


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CBSE Special TX: 
GENERAL: 
Subjects: 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Knowledge Traditions and Practices of India)

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CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Knowledge Traditions and Practices of India)

Rationale

The "Knowledge Traditions and Practices of India" has been introduced as an elective subject at the Senior Secondary level w.e.f. 2012-2013 in class XI as a pilot and introduced in all schools w.e.f. 2013 in classes XI and XII. After ten years of general education, students branch out at the beginning of this stage and are exposed to the rigours of the various disciplines for the first time. This is the stage when they are made to start reflecting over their future life and decide a career. At this point, they also become aware of certain knowledge traditions and practices of India that are being followed in their families and society around them but few students get an opportunity to lay hands on the vast treasure of knowledge that lies hidden in the
form of literature or books.

This course aims at providing a broad overview of Indian thought in a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary mode. It would not seek to impart masses of data, but would highlight concepts and major achievements while engaging the student with a sense of exploration and discovery. It would be an introductory course so that students who take this course are prepared for a related field in higher studies in the universities. The course will cultivate critical appreciation of the thought content and provide insights relevant for promoting cognitive ability, health and well-being, good governance, aesthetic appreciation, right values and appropriate worldview. The course will therefore comprehensively deal with all-round personality development of the students and increase their knowledge about their country.

Concept of the Course

The knowledge traditions of India are continuous and cumulative. They are textual and exegetical traditions in different areas of thought and experience: philosophy, medicine, grammar, architecture, geography, literary theory, polity and political economy, logic, astronomy and mathematics, military science, metallurgy, agriculture, mining and gemmology, and shipbuilding, among others. Concepts and technical vocabularies of these traditions are still a part of the thinking and the languages of modern India. The tradition is also non-egocentric. The 5th-century philosopher of language, Bhartrihari, states in his Vakyapadiya, a cardinal principle of knowledge constitution: "The intellect acquires critical acumen by familiarity with different traditions. How much does one really understand by merely following one's own reasoning only?" (Bhartrihari, Vakyapadiya, II.484). The traditions are therefore, intrinsically polycentric;
Indian thinkers have constantly engaged in internal debate and dialogue and have also interacted with traditions outside India.

Aims and Objectives of the course:
Students will be able to:

  • get familiar with Indian thought in different disciplines.
  • get familiar with major Indian thinkers in different disciplines.
  • get familiar with the primary texts of Indian thought through an organized study of short extracts intranslation of those texts.
  • develop a better appreciation and understanding of not only the Knowledge Traditions and Practices of India but also of many contemporary questions and issues that they handle in their course work in related disciplines.
  • enhance self awareness and self-esteem.

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CBSE Special TX: 
GENERAL: 
Exam: 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (National Cadet Corps)

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CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (National Cadet Corps)

1. The training curriculum of the NCC is primarily focused towards character building, inculcating leadership qualities and skill enhancement through structured academic syllabi, practical training and opportunity of exposure/interaction beyond a cadet’s immediate environment and thereby enabling them for a brighter and progressive future.

2. The Aim of NCC is as listed below:
(a) To develop character, comradeship, discipline, secular outlook, spirit of adventure and the ideals of selfless service amongst the youth of the country.
(b) To create a human resource of organized, trained and motivated youth, to provide leadership in all walks of life and always available for the service of the nation.
(c) To provide a suitable environment to motivate the youth to take up a career in the Armed Forces.

3. Conduct of Training: The NCC training curriculum is conducted as under:
(a) Institutional Training. Conducted in respective schools/ colleges by Associate NCC Officers (ANO), Permanent Instructional (PI) staff as part of the school curriculum.
(b) Annual Training Camps (ATC). To provide practical outdoor training, each NCC cadet attends 10 days camp in the second year of junior and senior division. These camps are conducted by respective NCC units.

(c) Centrally Organized Camps (COC). These camps are conducted at all India level, as National Integration Camps, attended by cadets from all states.
(d) Adventure Training. To inculcate a spirit of adventure and team work, NCC cadets undergo various adventure activities such as para jumps, para sailing, trekking, mountaineering and sailing expeditions.

(e) Attachment Camps. To give the cadets exposure to interact with Regular Army, Navy and Air Force units, attachment camps are conducted, where cadets are attached with these units. To motivate cadets to join the Armed Forces attachment of cadets with Indian Military Academy is also conducted.

(f) Youth Exchange Programme (YEP). Selected cadets also get an opportunity to visit various foreign countries as part of YEP. In one year approximately100 cadets visit 10 -11 countries.

(g) Social Service Activities. The cadets also undertake various social service activities, by conduct of rallies to bring awareness and participate in various relief programmes/activities whenever called for.

4. Trainers – To conduct and implement the NCC training curriculum, there are three tiers of trainers.

(a) First Tier: It comprises of regular defence officers of the rank of Colour equitant rank in Air Force and Navy, Whole Time Lady Officers (WTLO) and Civilian Gliding Instructors (CGI).They are responsible for coordination and supervision of training and conduct of camps.

(b) Second Tier: Professors and teachers nominated by respective schools and colleges and trained by NCC at its NCC Officers Training Academy and on completion of Pre–Commission Course, commissioned as Associated NCC Officer (ANO) form the most important link between the cadets and NCC. They conduct most of the theory classes of non specialized subjects. Besides the Pre Commission training they attend refresher courses.

(c) Third Tier: The Junior Commissioned Officers (JCO) and Non–Commissioned Officers (NCO) from the three services and Girl Cadet Instructors (GCI) and Ship Model Instructors (SMI) conduct the specialized training of the cadets.

5. Eligibility for Enrolments as Cadet.

(a) Should be a citizen of India or a subject of Nepal.
(b) Should be on the roll of the school or college which has an NCC Unit or part thereof.
(c) The cadet should be within the age as mentioned below:-

(i) Junior Division – Not less than 13 years and below 18 years and 6 months.
(ii) Senior Division - Should be below the age of 26 years.

6. NCC Syllabus. The syllabus includes common subjects for all three wings and specialized subjects with respect to Army, Air Force and Navy. The common subjects comprise of approximately 70% and specialized service is 30% of the curriculum.

7. In addition to this syllabus, cadets attend one Annual Training Camp in the second year of junior and senior division to be eligible to appear in Part A and Part B certificate examination.

8. Cadets willing to pursue for Part C Certificate will have to attend third year senior division in the college.
Evaluation System

9. NCC presently conducts three certificate examinations, these evaluations are conducted as a written paper for theory and practical in the second year of junior division for Part ‘A’ and in the second and third year of senior division for Part ‘B’ and ‘C’. The setting of papers and evaluations for Part ‘A’ and ‘ B’ examinations are done by a board of officers at NCC Group Head Quarters headed by an officer of the rank of Brigadier and Part ‘C’ Examination at NCC state Directorate level headed by a officer of the rank of Major General.
10. Recommended evaluation pattern for NCC as an additional / elective subject in the schools affiliated with CBSE is as follows:

(a) Internal Examinations for class IX (JD) and class XI (SD) be conducted by respective ANO’s and PI staff under the supervision of respective Commanding Officers of NCC unit. Marks included in the cadets’ report card by concerned school.

(b) Part ‘A’ examination paper be set at state Directorate level and evaluated by Board of Officers at Group Headquarters. Copy of the result in respect of CBSE schools be forwarded to CBSE Board as performance evaluation of class X cadet.

(c) Part ‘B’ examination paper be set at HQ DG NCC level and evaluated by Board of Officers at Group Headquarters. Copy of the result in respect of CBSE schools be forwarded to CBSE Board as performance evaluation of class XII cadet. The result sheet in addition to the NCC cadet number will also have CBSE roll number. The marks obtained be included in the CBSE Board certificate and ‘C’ Certificate be issued by concerned State Directorate.

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CBSE Special TX: 
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Exam: 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Legal Studies)

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CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Legal Studies)

Rationale

The Latin maxim ignorantia juris neminem excusat, in plain, which reads as ‘ignorance of law is not an excuse’. This is one of the age old principles followed under the Roman Law and even in our own Common Law. If every person of discretion is to know what law is, an effort to teach law outside the remit of a professional law school may have significant social benefits.
Law is a subject which has been traditionally taught in Universities for almost eight centuries. Learning law outside the settings of a professional law school has a number of perceived benefits. Some familiarity with law enhances one’s understanding of public affairs and an awareness of one’s entitlements and duties as a citizen. It may also be helpful in eliminating some of the mistaken notions about law and some of the inveterate prejudices about law, lawyers and the legal system as such. Another advantage is that an understanding of law can undoubtedly encourage talented students to pursue a career in law – an objective which is laudable in its own right.
The pitfalls of learning law outside the settings of a professional school are rooted in two key assumptions: (1) law is too vast and complicated to be taught in a non-professional setting; (2) the lack of professional trainers and experienced teachers could lead to incorrect appreciation and understanding of law. If an understanding of law is mis-formed or ill-formed as some academicians think, it may require greater efforts to unlearn whatever was learnt earlier. Both these criticisms have attracted detailed scrutiny, but at least a few countries have introduced law at the High School level.
The experience of countries that have introduced law has been by and large optimistic. The Central Board of Secondary Education is introducing Legal Studies at the Class XI level. The proposal is to introduce one module in Class XI and a second module in Class XII.

Objectives

  • To provide a background of the evolution of the Indian legal system in a short and concise form.
  • To focus on the applicability of justice, equity and good conscience and more importantly the development of Common Law system in India.
  • To provide exposure on various systems of law such as Common Law, Civil Law, Hindu Law, Islamic Law etc.
  • To develop an understanding of the essential features of the Indian Constitution, including the role and importance of Fundamental Rights, Separation of Powers, Structure and operation of Courts, concept of precedent in judicial functioning, the process of legislation, basic principles of statutory interpretation, etc
  • To deal with principles of practical utility such as the concept of Rule of Law, principles of justice, differences between criminal and civil cases, the concept of crime and the fundamental theories of punishment, rights available to the accused at various stages of the criminal investigative process, or the key components of Human Rights, etc.
  • To understand the fundamental concept and subject matter of property, contract and tort.
  • To understand the rudimentary aspects of contract law such as formation of contract, terms and conditions, discharge, etc.
  • To enables students to form an understanding of rights and duties and various categories of liability principles which form the bedrock for an understanding of Law.

Class XII (2018–19)

One Paper

Time: 3 hrs.

Marks :100

S.No.

Contents Periods

Marks

1. Judiciary 35

15

2. Topics in Law 35

15

3. Arbitration, Tribunal Adjudication and Alternate Dispute Resolution 35

15

4. Human Rights in India 35

15

5. Legal Profession in India 35

15

6. Legal Services 35

15

7. International Context 10

10

  Total 220

100


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CBSE Special TX: 
GENERAL: 
Subjects: 
Exam: 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Physical Education)

CBSE-CLASS-12-LOGO

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Physical Education)

CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM (2018-19) Class XII
Theory Max. Marks 70

Unit I Planning in Sports

  • Meaning & Objectives Of Planning
  • Various Committees & its Responsibilities (pre; during & post)
  • Tournament – Knock-Out, League Or Round Robin & Combination
  • Procedure To Draw Fixtures – Knock-Out (Bye & Seeding) & League (Staircase & Cyclic)
  • Intramural & Extramural – Meaning, Objectives & Its Significance
  • Specific Sports Programme (Sports Day, Health Run, Run For Fun, Run For Specific Cause & Run For Unity)

Unit II Sports & Nutrition

  • Balanced Diet & Nutrition: Macro & Micro Nutrients
  • Nutritive & Non-Nutritive Components Of Diet
  • Eating For Weight Control – A Healthy Weight, The Pitfalls Of Dieting, Food Intolerance & Food Myths
  • Sports nutrition & its effect on performance (fluid & meal intake, pre, during & post competition)
  • Food supplement for children
  • Asanas as preventive measures
  • Obesity: Procedure, Benefits & contraindications for Vajrasana, Hastasana, Trikonasana, Ardh Matsyendrasana
  • Diabetes: Procedure, Benefits & contraindications for Bhujangasana, Paschimottasana, Pavan Muktasana, Ardh Matsyendrasana
  • Asthema: Procedure, Benefits & contraindications for Sukhasana, Chakrasana, Gomukhasana, Parvatasana, Bhujangasana, Paschimottasana, Matsyasana
  • Hypertension: Tadasana, Vajrasana, Pavan Muktasana, Ardha Chakrasana, Bhujangasana, Sharasana
  • Back Pain: Tadasana, Ardh Matsyendrasana, Vakrasana, Shalabhasana, Bhujangasana

Unit IV Physical Education & Sports for CWSN (Children With Special Needs - Divyang)

  • Concept of Disability & Disorder
  • Types of Disability, its causes & nature (cognitive disability, intellectual disability, physical disability)
  • Types of Disorder, its cause & nature (ADHD, SPD, ASD, ODD, OCD)
  • Disability Etiquettes
  • Advantage of Physical Activities for children with special needs
  • Strategies to make Physical Activities assessable for children with special need.

Unit V Children & Sports

  • Motor development & factors affecting it
  • Exercise Guidelines at different stages of growth & Development
  • Advantages & disadvantages of weight training
  • Concept & advantages of Correct Posture
  • Causes of Bad Posture
  • Common Postural Deformities - Knock Knee; Flat Foot; Round Shoulders; Lordosis, Kyphosis, Bow Legs and Scolioses
  • Corrective Measures for Postural Deformities

Unit VI Women & Sports

  • Sports participation of women in India
  • Special consideration (Menarch & Menstural Disfunction)
  • Female Athletes Triad (Oestoperosis, Amenoria, Eating Disorders)
  • Psychological aspects of women athlete
  • Sociological aspects of sports participation

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GENERAL: 
Exam: 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Sociology)

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CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Sociology)

Rationale

Sociology is introduced as an elective subject at the senior secondary stage. The syllabus is designed to help learners to reflect on what they hear and see in the course of everyday life and develop a constructive attitude towards society in change; to equip a learner with concepts and theoretical skills for the purpose. The curriculum of Sociology at this stage should enable the learner to understand dynamics of human behaviour in all its complexities and manifestations. The learners of today need answers and explanations to satisfy the questions that arise in their minds while trying to understand social world. Therefore, there is a need to develop an analytical approach towards the social structure so that they can meaningfully participate in the process of social change. There is scope in the syllabus not only for interactive learning, based on exercises and project work but also for teachers and students to jointly innovate new ways of learning.

  • Sociology studies society. The child’s familiarity with the society in which she /he lives in makes the study of Sociology a double edged experience. At one level Sociology studies institutions such as family and kinship, class, caste and tribe religion and region- contexts with which children are familiar of, even if differentially. For India is a society which is varied both horizontally and vertically. The effort in the books will be to grapple overtly with this both as a source of strength and as a site for interrogation.
  • Significantly the intellectual legacy of Sociology equips the discipline with a plural perspective that overtly engages with the need for defamiliarization, to unlearn and question the given. This interrogative and critical character of Sociology also makes it possible to understand both other cultures as well as relearn about one’s own culture.
  • This plural perspective makes for an inbuilt richness and openness that not too many other disciplines in practice share. From its very inception Sociology has had mutually enriching and contesting traditions of an interpretative method that openly takes into account ‘subjectivity’ and causal explanations that pay due importance to establishing causal correspondences with considerable sophistication. Not surprisingly its field work tradition also entails large scale survey methods as well as a rich ethnographic tradition. Indeed Indian sociology, in particular has bridged this distinction between what has often been seen as distinct approaches of Sociology and social anthropology. The syllabus provides ample opportunity to make the child familiar with the excitement of field work as well as its theoretical significance for the very discipline of Sociology.
  • The plural legacy of Sociology also enables a bird’s eye view and a worm’s eye view of the society the child lives in. This is particularly true today when the local is inextricably defined and shaped by macro global processes.
  • The syllabus proceeds with the assumption that gender as an organizing principle of society cannot be treated as an add on topic but is fundamental to the manner that all chapters shall be dealt with.
  • The chapters shall seek for a child centric approach that makes it possible to connect the lived reality of children with social structures and social processes that Sociology studies.
  • A conscious effort will be made to build into the chapters a scope for exploration of society that makes learning a process of discovery. A way towards this is to deal with sociological concepts not as givens but a product of societal actions humanly constructed and therefore open to questioning.

SOCIOLOGY (Code No. 039)
CLASS–XII (2018-19)


One Paper Theory
Marks 80

Unitwise Weightage
3 hours

Units

 

Periods

Marks

A.

Indian Society

 

 

 

1.   Introducing Indian Society

6

Non-evaluative

 

2.   The Demographic Structure of Indian Society

10

6

 

3.   Social Institutions-Continuity and Change

12

6

 

4.   Market as a Social Institution

10

6

 

5.   Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion

20

6

 

6.   Challenges of Cultural Diversity

20

8

 

7.   Suggestions for Project Work

16

Non-evaluative

 

 

Total

32

B.

Change and Development in Indian Society

 

 

 

8.   Structural Change

10

6

 

9.   Cultural Change

12

6

 

10. The Story of Indian Democracy

16

6

 

11. Change and Development in Rural Society

10

6

 

12. Change and Development in Industrial Society

14

6

 

13. Globalization and Social Change

10

6

 

14. Mass Media and Communications

14

6

 

15. Social Movements

20

6

 

 

Total

48

 

 

200

80

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CBSE Special TX: 
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Exam: 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Psychology)

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CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Psychology)

Psychology is introduced as an elective subject at the higher secondary stage of school education. As a discipline, psychology specializes in the study of experiences, behaviours, and mental processes of human beings within a socio-cultural historical context. This course purports to introduce the learners to the basic ideas, principles, and methods in Psychology. The emphasis is to create interest and exposure needed by learners to develop their own knowledge base and understanding.
The course deals with psychological knowledge and practices which are contextually rooted. It emphasizes the complexity of behavioural processes and discourages simplistic cause-effect thinking. This is pursued by encouraging critical reasoning, allowing students to appreciate the role of cultural factors in behaviour, and illustrating how biology and experiences shape behaviour.
It is suggested that the teaching - learning processes should involve students in evolving their own understanding, therefore, teaching of Psychology should be based on the use of case studies, narratives, experiential exercises, analysis of common everyday experiences, etc.

Objectives:

  • To develop appreciation about human mind and behaviour in the context of learners’ immediate society and environment.
  • To develop in learners an appreciation of the nature of psychological knowledge and its application to various aspects of life.
  • To enable learners to become perceptive, socially aware and self-reflective.
  • To facilitate students’ quest for personal growth and effectiveness, and to enable them to become responsive and responsible citizens.

CLASS–XII (THEORY) (2018-19)

One Theory Paper : Marks 70

Units

  Period

Weightage in Marks

I Variations in Psychological Attributes 20

9

II Self and Personality 24

10

III Meeting Life Challenges 14

7

IV Psychological Disorders 24

10

V Therapeutic Approaches 20

7

VI Attitude and Social Cognition 20

8

VII Social Influence and Group Processes 22

7

VIII Psychology and Life 13

6

IX Developing Psychological Skills 13

6

  Total 170

70


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CBSE Special TX: 
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CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Geography)

CBSE-CLASS-12-LOGO

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Geography)

Geography is introduced as an elective subject at the senior secondary stage. After ten years of general education, students branch out at the beginning of this stage and are exposed to the rigors of the discipline for the first time. Being an entry point for the higher education, students choose Geography for pursuing their academic interest and, therefore, need a broader and deeper understanding of the subject. For others, geographical knowledge is useful in daily lives because it is a valuable medium for the education of young people. Its contribution lies in the content, cognitive processes, skills and values that Geography promotes and thus helps the students explore, understand and evaluate the environmental and social dimensions of the world in a better manner.

Since Geography explores the relationship between people and their environment, it includes studies of physical and human environments and their interactions at different scales-local, state/region, nation and the world. The fundamental principles responsible for the varieties in the distributional pattern of physical and human features and phenomena over the earth's surface need to be understood properly. Application of these principles would be taken up through selected case studies from the world and India. Thus, the physical and human environment of India and study of some issues from a geographical point of view will be covered in greater detail. Students will be exposed to different methods used in geographical nvestigations.

Objectives:

The course in Geography will help learners to:

  • Familiarise with key concepts, terminology and core principles of Geography.
  • Describe locations and correlate with Geographical Perspectives.
  • List/describe what students might see, hear, smell, at a place.
  • List/describe ways a place is linked with other places.
  • Compare conditions and connections in one place to another.
  • Analyze/describe how conditions in one place can affect nearby places.
  • Identify regions as places that are similar or connected.
  • Describe and interpret the spatial pattern features on a thematic map.
  • Search for, recognize and understand the processes and patterns of the spatial arrangement of the
  • natural features as well as human aspects and phenomena on the earth's surface.
  • Understand and analyses the inter-relationship between physical and human environments and utilise
  • such knowledge in reflecting on issues related to community.
  • Apply geographical knowledge and methods of inquiry to emerging situations or problems at different
  • levels-local, regional, national and global.
  • Develop geographical skills, relating to collection, processing and analysis of spatial data/ information
  • and preparation of report including maps and graphs and use of computers where ever possible; and to
  • be sensitive to issues.

GEOGRAPHY (Code No. 029)
Class XII (2018-19)

One Theory Paper : 3 Hours
70 Marks

A

Fundamentals of Human Geography

35 Marks

  Unit 1: Human Geography
Unit 2: People
Unit 3: Human Activities
Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade
Unit 5: Human settlements
30
  Map Work

5

B India: People and Economy

35 Marks

  Unit 6: People
Unit 7: Human Settlements
Unit 8: Resources and Development
Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade
Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems

30

  Map Work

5

C Practical Work

30 Marks

  Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping

15

  Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology

10

  Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva Voce

5

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CBSE Special TX: 
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CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Political Science)

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CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Political Science)

Rationale

At the senior secondary level students who opt Political Science are given an opportunity to get introduced to the diverse concerns of a Political Scientist. At this level there is a need to enable students to engage with political processes that surround them and provide them with an understanding of the historical context that has shaped the present. The different courses introduce the students to the various streams of the discipline of Political Science: Political Theory, Indian Politics and International Politics. Concerns of the other two streams - Comparative Politics and Public Administration- are accommodated at different places in these courses. In introducing these streams, special care has been taken not to burden the students with the current jargon of the discipline. The basic idea here is to lay the foundations for a serious engagement with the discipline at the under graduation stage.

Objectives:

Indian Constitution at Work

  • Enable students to understand the historical processes and the circumstances in which the Constitution was drafted.
  • Provide opportunity for students to become familiar with the diverse visions that guided the makers of the Indian Constitution.
  • Enable students to identify certain key features of the Constitution and compare these to other constitutions in the world.
  • Analyse the ways in which the provisions of the Constitution have worked in real political life.

Political Theory

  • Develop the skills for logical reasoning and abstraction.
  • Inculcate attention to and respect for viewpoints other than one's own.
  • Introduce students to the different political thinkers in relation to a concept and in everyday social life.
  • Enable students to meaningfully participate in and develop internal concerns of the political life that surrounds them.
  • Encourage the students to analyse any unexamined prejudices that one may have inherited.

Contemporary World Politics

  • Enable the students to expand their horizons beyond India and make sense of the political map of contemporary world.
  • Familiarise the students with some of the key political events and processes in the post cold war era.
  • Equip students to be conscious of the way in which global events and processes shape our everyday lives.
  • Strengthen their capacity for political analysis by thinking of contemporary developments in a historical perspective.

Politics in India after Independence

  • Enable students to become familiar with some of the key political events and figures in the post-independence period.
  • Develop skills of political analysis through an understanding of events and processes of recent history.
  • Develop their capacity to link macro processes with micro situations and their own life.
  • Encourage the students to take a historical perspective of making sense of contemporary India.

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CBSE Special TX: 
GENERAL: 
Exam: 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (History)

CBSE-CLASS-12-LOGO

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (History)

HISTORY (Code No. 027)

Class XII - Syllabus (2018-19)

Paper One Theory                                                                                            Max Marks: 100(80+20)

Units

Periods

Marks

Themes in Indian History Part-I

Units 1 - 4

55

25

Themes in Indian History Part-II

Units 5 - 9

65

25

Themes in Indian History Part-III

Units 10 - 15

80

25

Unit 16 : Map Work

10

05

Project work

10

20

 

220

100

Class XII: Themes in Indian History

Themes

Objectives

PART - I

1.   The Story of the First Cities: Harappan

Archaeology.                                         (13) Broad overview: Early urban centres.

Story of discovery: Harappan civilization

Excerpt:  Archaeological  report  on  a  major site.

Discussion:  How  it  has  been  utilized   by archaeologists/historians.

2.   Political and Economic History: How     (14) Inscriptions tell a story.

Broad   overview:   Political    and   economic history from the Mauryan to the Gupta period.

Story   of   discovery:   Inscriptions   and   the decipherment  of  the  script.  Shifts   in   the understanding     of            political                        and economic history.

Excerpt: Asokan inscription and Gupta period land grant.

Discussion:  Interpretation  of  inscriptions  by historians.

3.   Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata (14)

 

  • Familiarize the learner with early urban centres as economic and social institutions.
  • Introduce the ways in which new data can lead to a revision of existing notions of history.
  • Illustrate steps of making archaeological reports.
  • Familiarize the learner with major trends in the political    and    economic      history     of    the subcontinent.
  • Introduce inscriptional analysis and the ways in which these have shaped the understanding of political and economic processes.
  • Familiarize  the  learner  with  issues  in  social history.


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CBSE Special TX: 
GENERAL: 
Subjects: 
Exam: 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Entrepreneurship)

CBSE-CLASS-12-LOGO

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Entrepreneurship)

Rationale

Development of school curriculum is a dynamic process responsive to the society and reflecting the needs and aspiration of its learners. Fast changing society deserves changes in educational curriculum particularly to establish relevance to emerging socio-economic environment; to ensure equity of opportunity and participation and finally promoting concern for excellence. In this context the course on entrepreneurship aims at instilling and stimulating human urge for excellence by realizing individual potential for generating and putting to use the inputs, relevant to social prosperity and thereby ensure decent means of living for every individual.

Objectives:

  • Acquiring Entrepreneurial spirit and resourcefulness
  • Familiarization with various uses of human resource for earning dignified means of living
  • Understanding the concept and process of entrepreneurship - its contribution in and role in the growth and development of individual and the nation
  • Acquiring entrepreneurial quality, competency and motivation
  • Learning the process and skills of creation and management of entrepreneurial venture

ENTREPRENEURSHIP (Code No. 066)
CLASS–XII (2018-19)

S. No.

Unit Periods

Marks

1.

2.

Entrepreneurial Opportunities

Plentrepreneurial Planning

40

40

30

3.

4.

Enterprise Marketing

Enterprise Growth Strategies

40

20

20

5.

6.

Business Arithmetic

Resource Mobilization

40

20

20
  Project Work 40

30

  Total 240

100


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CBSE Special TX: 
GENERAL: 
Exam: 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Accountancy)

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CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Accountancy)

Rationale

The course in accountancy is introduced at plus two stage of senior second of school education, as the formal commerce education is provided after ten years of schooling. With the fast changing economic scenario, accounting as a source of financial information has carved out a place for itself at the senior secondary stage. Its syllabus content provide students a firm foundation in basic accounting concepts and methodology and also acquaint them with the changes taking place in the preparation and presentation of financial statements in accordance to the applicable accounting standards and the Companies Act 2013.

The course in accounting put emphasis on developing basic understanding about accounting as an information system. The emphasis in class Xi is placed on basic concepts and process of accounting leading to the preparation of accounts for a sole proprietorship firm. The students are also familiarized with basic calculations of Goods and Services Tax (GST) in recording the business transactions. The increased role of ICT in all walks of life cannot be overemphasized and is becoming an integral part of business operations. The learners of accounting are introduced to Computerized Accounting System at class XI and XII. Computerized Accounting System is a compulsory component which is to be studied by all students of commerce in class XI; whereas in class XII it is offered as an optional subject to Company Accounts and Analysis of Financial Statements. This course is developed to impart skills for designing need based accounting database for maintaining book of accounts. The complete course of Accountancy at the senior secondary stage introduces the learners to the world of business and emphasize on strengthening the fundamentals of the subject.

Objectives:

1. To familiarize students with new and emerging areas in the preparation and presentation of financial statements.
2. To acquaint students with basic accounting concepts and accounting standards.
3. To develop the skills of designing need based accounting database.
4. To appreciate the role of ICT in business operations.
5. To develop an understanding about recording of business transactions and preparation of financialstatements.
6. To enable students with accounting for Not-for-Profit organizations, accounting for Partnership Firms and company accounts.

Accountancy (Code No. 055)

Class-XII (2018-19)

 

One Paper                                                                                                                                                          Theory: 80 Marks

3 Hours

Units

 

Periods

Marks

Part A

Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organizations, Partnership Firms and

Companies

 

 

 

Unit 1. Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations

25

10

 

Unit 2. Accounting for Partnership Firms

90

35

 

Unit 3. Accounting for Companies

35

15

 

 

150

60

Part B

Financial Statement Analysis

 

 

 

Unit 4. Analysis of Financial Statements

30

12

 

Unit 5. Cash Flow Statement

20

8

 

 

50

20

Part C

Project Work

40

20

 

Project work will include:

 

 

 

Project File

4 Marks

 

 

 

Written Test

12 Marks (One Hour)

 

 

 

Viva Voce

4 Marks

 

 

OR

 

Part B

Computerized Accounting

 

 

 

Unit 4. Computerized Accounting

50

20

Part C

Practical Work

26

20

 

Practical work will include:

 

 

 

Practical File                                                   4 Marks

 

 

 

Practical Examination                                    12 Marks (One Hour)

 

 

 

Viva Voce’                                                       4 Marks

 

 

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CBSE Special TX: 
GENERAL: 
Exam: 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Business Studies)

CBSE-CLASS-12-LOGO

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Business Studies)

Rationale

The courses in Business Studies and Accountancy are introduced at + 2 stage of Senior Secondary Education as formal commerce education is provided after first ten years of schooling. Therefore, it becomes necessary that instructions in these subjects are given in such a manner that students have a good understanding of the principles and practices bearing in business (trade and industry) as well as their relationship with the society.
Business is a dynamic process that brings together technology, natural resources and human initiative in a constantly changing global environment. To understand the framework in which a business operates, a detailed study of the organisation and management of business processes and its interaction with the environment is required. Globalisation has changed the way organizations transact their business.
Information Technology is becoming a part of business operations in more and more organisations. Computerised systems are fast replacing other systems. E-business and other related concepts are picking up fast which need to be emphasized in the curriculum.
The course in Business Studies prepares students to analyse, manage, evaluate and respond to changes which affect business. It provides a way of looking at and interacting with the business environment. It recognizes the fact that business influences and is influenced by social, political, legal and economic forces.
It allows students to appreciate that business is an integral component of society and develops an understanding of many social and ethical issues.
Therefore, to acquire basic knowledge of the business world, a course in Business Studies would be useful. It also informs students of a range of study and work options and bridges the gap between school and work.

Objectives:

  • To develop students with an understanding of the processes of business and its environment;
  • To acquaint students with the dynamic nature and inter-dependent aspects of business;
  • To develop an interest in the theory and practice of business, trade and industry;
  • To familiarize students with theoretical foundations of the process of organizing and managing the operations of a business firm;
  • To help students appreciate the economic and social significance of business activity and the social cost and benefits arising there from;
  • To acquaint students with the practice of managing the operations and resources of business;
  • To enable students to act more effectively and responsibly as consumers, employers, employees and citizens;
  • To develop a business attitude and skills in students.
  • To inculcate appropriate attitude and develop skills among students to pursue higher education, world of work including self employment.

CLASS–XII (2018-19)
COURSE STRUCTURE

One Paper 3 Hours ; Theory: 80 Marks
Project: 20 Marks

Units

  Periods

Marks

Part A

Principles and Functions of Management    

1.

2.

3.

Nature and Significance of Management

Principles of Management

Business Environment

14

14

12

16

4.

5.

Planning

Organising

14

18

14

6.

7.

8.

Staffing

Directing

Controlling

16

18

14

20
    120

50

Part B

Business Finance and Marketing    

9.

10.

Financial Management

Financial Markets

22

20

15

11.

12.

Marketing Management

Consumer Protection

32

16

15

Part C

Project Work (One) 30

20

    120

50

Part A: Principles and Functions of Management : 120 Periods

Concept includes meaning and features

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CBSE Special TX: 
GENERAL: 
Exam: 

CBSE Class-9 Syllabus 2018-19 (Computer Applications)

CBSE-CLASS-9-LOGO

CBSE Class-9 Syllabus 2018-19 (Computer Applications)

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
CLASS IX
(Code No.165)
Effective from the session 2018-19

1. Prerequisites
No background in computer science is required.

2. Learning Outcomes

  1. Familiarity with basics of computers.
  2. Ability to navigate the file system.
  3. Create and edit rich text documents, spreadsheets, and presentations.
  4. Perform basic data manipulation using spreadsheets.
  5. Use Indian languages in documents.
  6. Send and receive emails, follow email etiquette, and communicate over the internet.
  7. Create and upload videos.
  8. Safe and correct usage of websites, social networks, chat sites, and email.
  9. Distribution of Marks

3. Distribution of Marks

Unit No.

Unit Name

Marks

1. Basics of Information Technology

5

2. Cyber safety

10

3. Office Tools

5

4. Scratch/Python

10

5. Lab Exercises

70

  Total

100

 

4.1. Unit 1: Basics of Information Technology

  • Familiarity with the basics of computers: design of computers, and overview of communication technologies
  • Computer Systems: characteristics of a computer, components of a computer system – CPU, memory, storage devices and I/O devices
  • Memory: primary (RAM and ROM) and secondary memory
  • Storage devices: hard disk, CD ROM, DVD, pen/flash drive, memory stick
  • I/O devices: keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, scanner, web camera
  • Types of software: system software (operating systems), application software, mobile applications
  • Operating systems: kernel, device drivers, and file systems (very basic idea)
  • Computer networking: wired/wireless communication, common protocols: Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cloud computers (private/public)
  • Multimedia: images, audio, video, animation
  • Chat sites, and social networks.

4.2. Unit 2: Cyber-safety

  • Safely browsing the web and using social networks: identity protection, proper usage of passwords, privacy, confidentiality of information, cyber stalking, reporting cybercrimes
  • Safely accessing websites: viruses and malware

4.3. Unit 3: Office tools

  • Introduction to a word processor: create and save a document.
  • Edit and format text: text style (B, I, U), font type, font size, text colour, alignment of text. Format paragraphs with line and/or paragraph spacing. Add headers and footers, numbering pages, grammar and spell check utilities, subscript and superscript, insert symbols, use print preview, and print a document.
  • Insert pictures, change the page setting, add bullets and numbering, borders and shading, and insert tables – insert/delete rows and columns, merge and split cells.
  • Use auto-format, track changes, review comments, use of drawing tools, shapes and mathematical symbols.
  • Presentation tool: understand the concept of slide shows, basic elements of a slide, different types of slide layouts, create and save a presentation, and learn about the different views of a slide set – normal view, slide sorter view and hand-outs.
  • Edit and format a slide: add titles, subtitles, text, background, and watermark, headers and footers, and slide numbers.
  • Insert pictures from files, create animations, add sound effects, and rehearse timings.
  • Spreadsheets: concept of a worksheet and a workbook, create and save a worksheet.
  • Working with a spreadsheet: enter numbers, text, date/time, series using auto fill; edit and format a worksheet including changing the colour, size, font, alignment of text; insert and delete cells, rows and columns. Enter a formula using the operators (+,-,*, /), refer to cells, and print a worksheet.
  • Use simple statistical functions: SUM (), AVERAGE (), MAX (), MIN (), IF () (without compound statements); embed charts of various types: line, pie, scatter, bar and area in a worksheet.


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GENERAL: 

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (economics)

CBSE-CLASS-12-LOGO

CBSE Class-12 Syllabus 2018-19 (Economics)

Rationale

Economics is one of the social sciences, which has great influence on every human being. As economic life and the economy go through changes, the need to ground education in children’s own experience becomes essential. While doing so, it is imperative to provide them opportunities to acquire analytical skills to observe and understand the economic realities.
At senior secondary stage, the learners are in a position to understand abstract ideas, exercise the power of thinking and to develop their own perception. It is at this stage, the learners are exposed to the rigour of the discipline of economics in a systematic way.
The economics courses are introduced in such a way that in the initial stage, the learners are introduced to the economic realities that the nation is facing today along with some basic statistical tools to understand these broader economic realities. In the later stage, the learners are introduced to economics as a theory of abstraction.
The economics courses also contain many projects and activities. These will provide opportunities for the learners to explore various economic issues both from their day-to-day life and also from issues, which are broader and invisible in nature. The academic skills that they learn in these courses would help to develop the projects and activities. The syllabus is also expected to provide opportunities to use information and communication technologies to facilitate their learning process.

Objectives:

  • Understanding of some basic economic concepts and development of economic reasoning which the learners can apply in their day-to-day life as citizens, workers and consumers.
  • Realisation of learners’ role in nation building and sensitivity to the economic issues that the nation is facing today.
  • Equipment with basic tools of economics and statistics to analyse economic issues. This is pertinent for even those who may not pursue this course beyond senior secondary stage.
  • Development of understanding that there can be more than one view on any economic issue and necessary skills to argue logically with reasoning.

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CBSE Special TX: 
GENERAL: 
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