(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Chemistry (Class 11 to
Higher Secondary Stage is the most crucial stage of school
education because at this stage specialised discipline based, content oriented
courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general
education and opt for Chemistry with a purpose of mostly for pursuing their
career in basic sciences or professional courses like medicines, engineering,
technology and studying courses in applied areas of science and technology at
tertiary level. Therefore, at this stage, there is a need to provide learners
with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them
competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the
higher secondary stage.
National Curriculum Framework for School Education – 2005
recommends a disciplinary approach with appropriate rigour and depth with the
care that syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the
international level. It emphasizes a coherent focus on important ideas within
the discipline that are properly sequenced to optimize learning. It recommends
that theoretical component of Higher Secondary Science should emphasize on
problem solving methods and the awareness of historical development of key
concepts of science be judiciously integrated into content. The present exercise
of syllabus development in Chemistry at Higher Secondary Stage is based on this
Salient features of the present syllabus are thus:
Some background of Chemistry from secondary stage
is assumed; however, no specific knowledge of topics in Chemistry is
The course is self-contained and broadly covers
fundamental concepts of Chemistry.
Attempt has been made to see discipline of
Chemistry does not remain only the science of facts but becomes related to
modern applications in the world around us.
The syllabus provides logical sequencing of the
‘Units’ of the subject matter with proper placement of concepts with their
linkages for better understanding.
Emphasis has been on promoting process – skills,
problem solving abilities and applications of concepts of Chemistry useful
in real life situation for making learning of Chemistry more relevant,
meaningful and interesting.
An effort has been made on the basis of feedback,
to remove repetition besides reducing the content by suitably integrating
the different content areas.
Practical syllabus has two components. There are
core experiments to be undertaken by the students in the classroom and will
be part of examination while each student will carry out one investigatory
project and submit the report for the examination. With this background, the
Chemistry curriculum at the higher secondary stage attempts to
promote understanding of basic principles in
Chemistry while retaining the excitement in Chemistry;
develop an interest in students to study Chemistry
strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary
stage and to provide firm foundation for further learning of Chemistry at
tertiary level more effectively;
develop positive scientific attitude, and
appreciate contribution of Chemistry towards the improvement of quality of
develop problem solving skills and nurture
curiosity, aesthetic sense and creativity;
inculcate values of honesty, integrity,
cooperation, concern for life and preservation of the environment;
make the learner realise the interface of Chemistry
with other disciplines of science such as Physics, Biology, Geology, etc;
equip students to face challenges related to
health, nutrition, environment, population, whether industries and
CHEMISTRY CLASS XI
Total Periods 180
Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.
Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical
combination, Dalton’s atomic
theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage
composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions,
stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit II: Structure of Atom
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number,
isotopes and isobars. Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model
and its limitations, Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and
subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship,
Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes
of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau
principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration
of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in
Significance of classification, brief history of the
development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of
periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements – atomic radii, ionic
radii, inert gas radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy,
Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond
parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent
character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent
molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals
and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear
diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, type of
bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept
of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law,
ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number, ideal
gas equation, deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical
temperature. Liquid State – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension
(qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
Unit VI: Thermodynamics
Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings, work,
heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy,
heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess’s law of
constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation,
atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, and dilution.
Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy
change for spontaneous and nonspontaneous process, equilibrium.
Unit VII: Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic
nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors
affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization
of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept
of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, solubility
product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Unit VIII: Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number,
balancing redox reactions, applications of redox reactions.
Unit IX: Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes,
preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and
interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen
peroxide – preparation, reactions and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous
properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in
the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic
radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens;
Preparation and properties of some important
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen
carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3,
and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
Unit XI: Some p-Block Elements
General Introduction to p-Block Elements
Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic
configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in
chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron –
physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids,
boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic
configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in
chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon – catenation,
allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important
Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon
tetrachloride , silicones, silicates and zeolites.
Unit XII: Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative
analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric
effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals,
carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic
Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons
Classification of hydrocarbons
Alkanes: Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations
(ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical
mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes: Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene),
geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical
reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s
addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic
Alkynes: Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne),
physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic
character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen
halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC
nomenclature; Benzene: resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of
electrophilic substitution – nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel
Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in
mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution : Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions
in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its
reactions, effects of depletion of ozone