Geography is introduced as an elective subject at the senior secondary stage. After ten years of general
education, students branch out at the beginning of this stage and are exposed to the rigours of the discipline
for the first time. Being an entry point for the higher education, students choose Geography for pursuing
their academic interest and, therefore, need a broader and deeper understanding of the subject. For others,
geographical knowledge is useful in daily lives because it is a valuable medium for the education of young
people. Its contribution lies in the content, cognitive processes, skills and values that Geography promotes
and thus helps the students explore, understand and evaluate the environmental and social dimensions of
the world in a better manner.
Since Geography explores the relationship between people and their environment, it includes studies of
physical and human environments and their interactions at different scales-local, state/region, nation and
the world. The fundamental principles responsible for the varieties in the distributional pattern of physical
and human features and phenomena over the earth's surface need to be understood properly. Application of
these principles would be taken up through selected case studies from the world and India. Thus, the
physical and human environment of India and study of some issues from a geographical point of view will be
covered in greater detail. Students will be exposed to different methods used in geographical investigations.
The course in Geography will help learners to:
Familiarise with key concepts, terminology and core principles of Geography.
Describe locations and correlate with Geographical Perspectives.
List/describe what students might see, hear, smell, at a place.
List/describe ways a place is linked with other places.
Compare conditions and connections in one place to another.
Analyze/describe how conditions in one place can affect nearby places.
Identify regions as places that are similar or connected.
Describe and interpret the spatial pattern features on a thematic map.
Search for, recognize and understand the processes and patterns of the spatial arrangement of the
natural features as well as human aspects and phenomena on the earth's surface.
Understand and analyse the inter-relationship between physical and human environments and utilise
such knowledge in reflecting on issues related to community.
Apply geographical knowledge and methods of inquiry to emerging situations or problems at different
levels-local, regional, national and global.
Develop geographical skills, relating to collection, processing and analysis of spatial data/ information
and preparation of report including maps and graphs and use of computers where ever possible; and to
be sensitive to issues.