ICSE (Class X)
Subject: Science (Physics) Paper - 1
There will be one paper of one and half-hours duration carrying
80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work carrying 20 marks.
The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I (40
marks) and Section II (40 marks).
Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer
questions on the entire syllabus.
Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will be
required to answer any four of these six questions.
Note: Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. Units are to
be used while teaching and learning, as well as for answering questions.
1. Force, Work, Energy and Power
(i) Contact and non-contact forces; cgs & SI units.
Examples of contact forces (frictional force, normal reaction
force, tension force as applied through strings and force exerted during
collision) and non-contact forces (gravitational, electric and magnetic).
General properties of non-contact forces. cgs and SI units of force and their
relation, Gravitational unit. [No numerical problems]
(ii) Turning forces concept; moment of a force; forces in
equilibrium; centre of gravity; (discussions using simple examples and simple
Elementary introduction of translation and rotation; moment
(turning effect) of a force, also called torque and its cgs and SI units; common
examples - door, steering wheel, bicycle pedal, etc.; clockwise and
anticlockwise moments; conditions for a body to be in equilibrium (
translational and rotational); principle of moment and its verification using a
metre rule suspended by two spring balances with slotted weights hanging from
it; simple numerical problems; Centre of gravity (qualitative only) with
examples of some regular bodies and irregular lamina (students should be
encouraged to try it out).
(iii) Uniform circular motion.
As example of constant speed, though acceleration (force) is
present. Basic idea of centrifugal and centripetal force (qualitative only).
(iv) Machines as force multipliers; load, effort, mechanical
advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency; simple treatment of levers, inclined
plane and pulley systems showing the utility of each type of machine.
Functions and uses of simple machines: Terms- effort E, load L,
mechanical advantage MA = L/E, velocity ratio VR = VE/VL = dE / dL , input (Wi),
output (Wo), efficiency (h), relation between h and MA,VR;
for all practical machines h <1; MA < VR. Lever: principle. First, second and
third class of levers; examples: MA and VR in each case.
Examples of each of these classes of levers as found in the
human body. Pulley system; simple fixed, single movable, combination of movable
pulleys, block and tackle; MA, VR and h in each case. [No derivation details.]
Gear (toothed wheel) - practical applications in watches, vehicles, uphill,
downhill motion, (no numerical). Inclined plane: MA, VR and h. [derivation not
required]. Utility of each type of machine. Simple numerical problems.
(v) Work, energy, power and their relation with force.
Definition of work. W = FS cosq; special cases of q = 00, 900. W= mgh.
Definition of energy, energy as work done. Various units of work and energy and
their relation with SI units.[erg, calorie, kW h and eV]. Definition of Power,
P=W/t; SI and cgs units; other units, kilowatt (kW), megawatt (MW) and gigawatt
(GW); and horse power (1hp=746W) [Simple numerical problems on work, power and
(vi) Different types of energy (e.g., chemical energy,
Mechanical energy, heat energy, electrical energy, nuclear energy, sound energy,
light energy). Mechanical energy: potential energy (U) gravitational, due to
change in configuration, examples; kinetic energy K= ½ mv2 (derive); forms of
kinetic energy; translational , rotational and vibrational - only simple
examples. [Numerical problems on K and U only in case of translational motion ];
qualitative discussions of electrical, chemical, heat, nuclear, light and sound
energy, conversion from one form to another; common examples.
(vii) Energy sources.
Solar, wind, water and nuclear energy (only qualitative
discussion of steps to produce electricity). Renewable versus non-renewable
sources (elementary ideas with example). Renewable energy: biogas, solar energy,
wind energy, energy from falling of water, run-of-the river schemes, energy from
waste, tidal energy, etc. Issues of economic viability and ability to meet
demands. Non-renewable energy – coal, oil, natural gas. Inequitable use of
energy in urban and rural areas. Use of hydroelectrical powers for light and
tube wells. Energy degradation - In all energy transformations some energy is
lost to surroundings which is not useful for any productive work (day to day
(viii) Principle of Conservation of energy. Statement: Total
energy of an isolated system remains constant; OR energy can be converted from
one form to another but it cannot be created or destroyed. Theoretical
verification that U + K = constant for a freely falling body. Application of
this law to simple pendulum (qualitative only); simple numerical problems.
(i) Refraction of light through a glass block and a triangular
prism qualitative treatment of simple applications such as real and apparent
depth of objects in water and apparent bending of sticks in water. Change of
medium causes partial reflection and refraction. The refracted beam has a change
in speed (V) and wavelength (l); frequency (n) remains constant; the direction
changes (except for i = 0). Values of speed of light (c) in vacuum, air, water
and glass; refractive index n = c/V., V = nl. Values of n for common substances;
laws of refraction; experimental verification; refraction through glass block;
lateral displacement; multiple images in thick glass plate/mirror; refraction
through a glass prism; relation i1+i2 = A+d and r1+r2 = A (without proof); i - d
graph. Unique dmin with, i1 = i2 and r1 = r2 - refracted ray parallel to the
base. No geometrical proof only recognition from ray diagrams; simple
applications: real and apparent depth of objects in water; apparent bending of a
stick under water. (no calculations but approximate ray diagrams required);
Simple numerical problems].
(ii) Total internal reflection: Critical angle; examples in
triangular glass prisms; comparison with reflection from a plane mirror
(qualitative only). Transmission of light from a denser medium (say glass) to a
rarer medium (air) at different angles of incidence; critical angle (c) n =
1/sin c. essential conditions for total internal reflection. Total internal
reflection in a triangular glass prism; ray diagram, different cases - angles of
prism (60º,60º,60º), (60º,30º,90º), (45º,45º,90º); use of right angle prism to
obtain d = 90º and 180º (ray diagram); comparison of total internal reflection
from a prism and reflection from a plane mirror. [No numerical problems].
(iii) Lenses (converging and diverging) including
characteristics of the images formed (using ray diagrams only); magnifying
glass; location of images using ray diagrams and thereby determining
magnification (sign convention and problems using the lens formulae are
Types of lenses (converging and diverging), convex, concave,
(sketch of shapes only); detailed study of refraction of light in equi-convex
and equi-concave spherical lenses only through ray diagrams; action of a lens as
a set of prisms; technical terms; centre of curvature, radii of curvature,
principal axis, foci, focal plane and focal length. Experimental determination
of ƒ of convex lens by distant object method, and by auxiliary plane mirror; ray
diagrams and simple description; formation of images - principal rays or
construction rays; location of images from ray diagram for various positions of
a small linear object on the principal axis; characteristics of images.
When the object is at focus, image is formed at infinity and can be seen. Ray
diagrams only [relation between u, v and f and problems not included].
Magnifying glass or simple microscopes: location of image and
magnification from ray diagram only [formula and problems not included].
(iv) Using a triangular prism to produce a visible
spectrum from white light; Electromagnetic spectrum. Scattering of light.
Deviation produced by a triangular prism; dependence on colour (wavelength) of
light; dispersion and spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum: broad classification
and approximate ranges of wavelength; properties common to all types; simple
properties and uses of each type. Simple application of scattering of light e.g.
blue colour of the sky. [No numerical problems].
(i) Reflection of Sound Waves; echoes: their use; simple
numerical problems on echoes. Production of echoes, condition for formation of
echoes; simple numerical problems; use of echoes by bats, dolphins, fishermen,
(ii) Forced, natural vibrations, resonance (through examples).
Examples of natural and forced vibrations - qualitative
discussion; resonance, a special case of forced vibration; examples -
sympathetic vibration of pendulums, machine parts, stretched string, sound box
of musical instrument - guitar, only brief qualitative description.
(iii) Loudness, pitch and quality of sound: Characteristics of
sound; loudness and intensity; subjective and objective nature of these
properties; sound level in db (as unit only); noise pollution; pitch and
frequency examples; quality and waveforms examples. [No numerical problems].
4. Electricity and Magnetism
(i) Ohm’s Law; concepts of emf, potential difference,
resistance; resistances in series and parallel; simple direct problems using
combinations of resistors in circuits. Review of Class IX topics as
introduction. Concepts of pd (V), current (I) and resistance (R) and Charge (Q)
by comparison with gravitational (free fall), hydrostatic (water flow), heat
(conduction) and electric current through a resistor, compare V with h and Q
with mg (force) in mgh, pd as work done / charge. Ohm's law: statement, V=IR; SI
units; experimental verification; graph of V vs I and resistance from slope;
ohmic and non-ohmic resistors, super conductors, electromotive force (emf);
combination of resistances in series and parallel and derivations of expressions
for equivalent resistance. Simple direct problems using the above relations.
Avoid complicated network of resistors.
(ii) Electrical power and energy.
lectrical energy; examples of heater, motor, lamp, loudspeaker,
etc. Electrical power; measurement of electrical energy, W = QV =VIt from the
definition of pd. Combining with ohm’s law W = VIt = I2 Rt = (V2/R)t and
electrical power P = (W/t) = VI = I2R = V2/R. Units: SI and commercial; Power
rating of common appliances, household consumption of electric energy;
calculation of total energy consumed by electrical appliances; W = Pt (kilowatt
x hour = kW h), simple numerical problems.
(iii) Household circuits – main circuit; switches; fuses;
earthing; safety precautions; three-pin plugs; colour coding of wires. House
wiring system, (Power distribution); main circuit (3 wires-live, neutral, earth)
with fuse, main switch; and its advantages circuit diagram; two-way switch,
staircase wiring, need for earthing, fuse, 3-pin plug and socket; Conventional
location of live, neutral and earth points in 3 pin plugs and sockets. Safety
precautions, conventional colour coding of wires. [No numerical problems].
(iv) Magnetic effect of a current (principles only, laws not
required); electromagnetic induction (elementary); transformer. Oersted’s
experiment on the magnetic effect of electric current; magnetic field (B) and
field lines due to current in a straight wire (qualitative only), right hand
(clasp) rule - thumb along current, curved fingers point along the B field or
the other way; magnetic field due to a current in a loop; clockwise current -
south pole and anticlockwise current - north pole; electromagnet; simple
construction of I-shaped and U-shaped (horse shoe type) electromagnets; their
uses; comparisons with a permanent magnet; the dc electric motor- simple sketch
of main parts (coil, magnet, split ring commutators and brushes); brief
description and type of energy transfer: Simple introduction to electromagnetic
induction; frequency of ac, ac generator, similar treatment as of dc motor;
advantage of ac over dc. The transformer; primary and secondary coils with turns
ratio NS /NP >1or< 1 for step up or step down transformer. Representative
diagrams (not symbolic). [No numerical problems].
(i) Specific heat capacities; Principle of method of mixtures;
problems on specific heat capacity using heat loss and gain and the method of
mixtures. Review concepts of heat and temperature from Class IX text. Thermal
(heat) capacity C' = Q/ T. Note that the change in temperature has the same
magnitude in oC and kelvin. ( T = 1 oC = 1K). Unit of C’: SI unit, J/K = J/oC ;
old unit (still used) cal/oC = cal/K; Sp. heat capacity defined as heat capacity
per unit mass or heat energy per unit mass per unit degree change of
temperature. C = Q/m T; and Q = mc. T. Units; J/kg.K (SI) = J/kg. oC also cal/g.
oC = cal/g.K. Mutual relations, values of C for some
common substances. Principle of method of mixtures including mathematical
statement. Natural phenomena involving sp. heat; consequences of high sp. heat
of water. Simple numerical problems.
(ii) Latent heat; loss and gain of heat involving change of
state for fusion only. Change of phase (state); heating curve for water; latent
heat; sp latent heat of fusion; some values; unit J/kg or cal/g. Mutual relation
between these units of latent heat. Mathematical expressions for heat loss and
heat gain involving latent heat. Simple numerical problems. Common physical
phenomena involving latent heat of fusion.
(iii) Greenhouse effect and global warming. Meaning and impact
on the life on earth; projections for the future; what needs to be done.
6. Modern Physics
(i) Thermionic emission; simple qualitative treatment of a hot
cathode ray tube. Simple introduction - electrons in metals, conduction
electrons; thermionic emission; work functions and its value in eV for a few
common substances; [application and use of diode or triode not included]. Hot
cathode ray tube; principle - thermionic emission, deflection of charged
particles (electrons) by electric fields and florescence produced by electrons;
simple sketch (labeled) showing electron gun, anode, deflection plates and
screen with vacuum tube, low tension (LT) connected to filament and high tension
(HT) between anode and cathode; qualitative explanation of working, mention two
uses. [No numerical problems].
(ii) Radioactivity and changes in the nucleus; background
radiation and safety precautions. Brief introduction (qualitative only) of the
nucleus, nuclear structure, atomic number (Z), mass number (A). Radioactivity as
spontaneous disintegration. a, b and g - their nature and properties; changes
within the nucleus. One example each of a and b decay with equations showing
changes in Z and A. Uses of radioactivity - radio isotopes. Harmful effects.
Safety precautions. Background radiation. Radiation: X-rays; radioactive fall
out from nuclear plants and other sources. Nuclear: working on safe disposal of
waste. Safety measures to be strictly reinforced.