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1. Nationalism in Europe and India

Compare the policies and methods used by Otto von Bismarck and Sardar Vallabhai Patel in unification of Germany and integration of States of India respectively. The report should include :-

  • Condition of Germany before 1871 (unification)
  • Condition of India immediately after 1947
  • Why the need for unification in both the places
  • Emergence of Bismarck and Sardar Patel, their brief life history
  • Their role in unification and integration.
  • Similarities and differences between the methods adopted by the two leaders
  • How did the unification affect the growth of the respective countries.

You may refer to the following websites:

Books : Any European History book on 19th century and Integration of States by V.P. Menon

2. Evolution and significance of the symbols associated with India’s freedom movement

  • Need for symbols in general and during Freedom struggle
  • Evolution of the symbols over a period of time. (Any two symbols out of the flag, a song, an object like the Charkha, a khadi, a novel, a place a newspaper like Harijan etc. may be selected).
  • The impact of symbols on common people during the course of the freedom movement – how and in what occasions were they used
  • How did they help in the making of the Indian nation-did they give a sense of identity?
  • What do these symbols mean to you today?
  • Design a symbol for 21st century reflecting its nationhood-Explain the symbol

You may refer to the following websites :


Sabarmati Ashram:


3. Growth of a city – Mumbai or Kolkata or Delhi or Chennai or any other city of India in the 19th and 20th centuries

  • Trace the growth of the chosen city from 17th century onwards
  • Reasons for its growth and importance
  • New administrative set up like municipalities, railway stations, post offices
  • Change in population pattern
  • Maps pertaining to this period
  • Some imporant monuments and the new architecture in the cities
  • The city today and its importance

Colonial architecture websites:

4. Series of inventions/ discoveries during the Industrial revolution in England (Any two)

  • The need for the inventions in 18th & 19th century in England
  • The inventors and their story
  • Technique/science behind the inventions
  • Opposition/reaction of the society
  • Evolution of the invention till Modern Times
  • Do we use any of these today? How and where?
  • Which, according to you was the most important of all inventions? Why?

You may refer to the following websites:

Refer to any books of British history of 18th and 19th centuries

5. Recreating the history of a period through a book.
Suggested books for reading :-

  • Exodus by Leon Iris for formation of Israel
  • Armaggden by Leon Uris for the aftermath of a war
  • All quiet on the western front for First World war
  • Oliver Twist, David Copper Field by Charles Dickens for society during Industrial Revolution
  • Good Earth by Pearl S Buck;
  • Roots by Alex Hailey;
  • Godaan and Chess Players by Prem Chand,
  • Broken Nest by Rabindranath Tagore;
  • Neel Darpan by Din Bandhu Mitra
  • Plain Tales from Raj by Charles Allen
  • Raj by Gita Mehta
  • The city of djinns by William Dalrymple
  • My experiments with truth by M.K Gandhi

To kill a mocking bird by Harper Lee or any regional language book (any one book) or any other book of your liking. The report to include -
1. Gist of the story
    2. Narrate specific incidents that reflect some features of the society.
    3. Have some or any of these features changed over a period of time?
    4. Comparison with modern times.
    5. Which character do you like the most and why?


6. Multipurpose River Valley Projects and alternate water supply methods

  • Role of multipurpose river valley projects
  • Evaluation of positive and negative aspects of river valley projects
  • Case study on one river valley and one local area conservation project
  • Narmada Bachao Andolan
  • Tehri Dam Andolan

The case study should include the following:-

  • Rehabilitation of the displaced population
  • Environment Impact Assessment

7. Development and changes in Agriculture of India since independence

  • Transition from subsistence to commercial farming
  • Change in the cropping pattern in Punjab, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu
  • Green Revolution I and II and its impact both positive and negative

8. Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

  • Types of pollutants
  • Ill-effects of different pollutants
  • Consequences of pollution study of any local river, factory or land fill.

9. Tourism

  • Development of different types of tourism
  • Important destinations of foreign and Indian tourists in at least 2 States of India
  • Tourism as an upcoming industry
  • Hindrance in the development of tourism in India


1. Comparative study of India and any one country from the United States of America/ Australia/Canada/South Africa
The study report to include :

  • Meaning of Federalism.
  • Why Federalism required in India and the “chosen” country
  • Features of Federalism in both—similarities and differences
  • Working of Federalism-- Federalism in theory and practice—give examples of center and state relationships and conflict and tension between center and state and state and State
  • How successful has federalism been in both the countries
  • Which system—a federal or unitary, do you favour for India? Why?

11. Political Parties

  • Meaning of Political parties.
  • Kinds of political parties.
  • Political party system in Great Britain, United States of America, India, Switzerland, China Cuba, USSR, North Korea. Take political party systems from any of the two countries mentioned here and compare their organization, manifestoes, policies and programs, their success and failure.
  • Participation in political parties and participation of political parties in the democratic process.
  • If you had to join a political party in India today, which one would it be and why?
  • What would be your manifesto?

12. Judicial Activism

  • Meaning and scope of judicial activism
  • Judicial activism in the developed countries/developing countries. Students can take one from a developed country such as USA, UK and one from a developing country e.g. India.
  • What is the need for judicial activism?
  • Judicial activism and the role of NGOs.
  • Extent of success achieved by judicial activism.
  • Judicial activism and judicial structure in India.
  • Students are required to read the newspapers of recent times and take up a case study like Jessica Lal case and explain judicial activism.

13. Need of Media role in a Democratic system

  • Meaning of media.
  • Kinds of media : print and electronic
  • Media and democratic system
  • Freedom of press, its necessity and role in India
  • The success achieved in India - a comparative study with any other country
  • Media and the latest technologies adopted pertaining to sports, elections, discoveries, wars, inventions etc.
  • Do the electronic media sometimes go overboard covering celebrities?
  • Is media always fair in India—give examples from recent times.

14. Challenges facing the Democratic system
Kinds of challenges (any one)
o Poverty
    o Illiteracy
    o Regionalism
    o Unemployment
    o Communalism
    o Linguism
    o Political violence--insurgency

The challenge and its present scenario.

  • Steps taken by Government for tackling the challenge.
  • Extent of success achieved pertaining to the challenge.
  • Is the extent of success satisfactory? If not, why not?
  • Suggestions for improvement.


15. Globalization and its impact on agriculture and industry

  • What is Globalization?
  • Factors that have led to globalization in the 21st century
  • Effects of globalization on the Indian farming sector – both positive and negative
  • Effects on Indian industry
  • WTO and Globalization
  • Globalization and the future of the Indian economy.

16. Changes in the occupational patterns of India since independence

  • Transition from primary sector to secondary and tertiary sector
  • Comparison between India and anyone developed economy such as USA, Japan or Germany.
  • Emerging role of tertiary sector in India.
  • New kinds of jobs that have emerged in the last decade—Which of these excites you the most?

17. Indicators of Development

  • Different indicators of development.
  • Regional disparities in development seen through the indicators.
  • Comparisons of develop


NEW!  CBSE Papers PDF: Class-X, Class-XII