ICSE (Class X)
Subject: Agricultural Science
There will be one paper of two hours duration carrying 80 marks and Internal
Assessment of 20 marks.
The paper will be divided into two sections, A and B.
Section A (Compulsory) will consist of questions requiring short answers and
will cover the entire syllabus. There will be no choice of questions in this
Section B will consist of questions that will require detailed answers. There
will be a choice of questions and candidates will be required to answer four
questions from this section.
1. Agricultural Economics
(i) Contribution of agriculture to the national economy.
(ii) Food production, self-sufficiency in food grains production,
agricultural productivity, the Green Revolution.
(iii) Land holdings, fragmentation and consolidation, land ceiling, common
property and village lands, land reform.
(iv) Agricultural labour.
(v) Agricultural credit, crop insurance, role of institutions such as NABARD.
(vi) Subsistence farming, food grain production, cash crops, changing
patterns of agricultural production in India, horticulture, food processing.
(vii) Problems faced by agriculture in India (with a discussion of their
2. In-depth study of Crop Production
(i) With reference to one locally grown cereal crop, the study of crop
cultivation and production; recognition of the suitability of the crop to local
environmental and soil conditions.
(ii) With reference to the cereal crop locally grown, study of the soil and
climatic requirements; land preparation; sowing/planting/harvesting cycle;
manure and fertilizers; prevention of pests, weeds and
diseases; maturity and storage of the cereal crop.
3. Agriculture and Energy
(i) Photosynthesis; food webs and energy flows; energy pyramid; trophic
levels; pyramid of numbers; pyramid of biomass; biomass energy.
(ii) The energy cost of agriculture; differences of energy usage in
traditional and technological agricultural practices.
(iii) Conventional energy sources for agriculture (thermal, hydroelectric and
nuclear - all in the form of electricity; petroleum - as motor fuel);
alternative energy sources (solar, biogas, gasohol, wind and geothermal energy).
4. Agricultural Technology
(i) Mechanisation in agriculture.
(ii) Hybridisation, genetic engineering, tissue culture, hydroponics,
microtechnology (for example, mushrooms, orchids), artificialecosystems
(for example, on the moon).
Suggested Project Work
1. The students should attempt to prepare a small piece of land and grow a
suitable local crop on it. They must document the process they used in
growing the crop.
2. Test and study the effect of seed depth, spacing and soil
preparation on plant growth.
3. Field study of soil erosion or conservation in a local area near the
4. Laboratory growth of plants or tissue cultures.
The assignments/project work is to be evaluated by the subject teacher and by
an External Examiner. (The External Examiner may be a teacher nominated by
the Head of the school, who could be from the faculty,
but not teaching the subject in the section/class. For example, a teacher of
Science of Class VIII may be deputed to be an External Examiner for Class X
The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will assess the assignments
Award of marks (20 Marks)
Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner) 10 marks
External Examiner 10 marks
The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to the Council by the Head
of the school.
The Head of the school will be responsible for the entry of marks on the mark
sheets provided by the Council.