(Paper) History Sample Paper Class XII - 1998 (Solved)

Disclaimer: This website is NOT associated with CBSE, for official website of CBSE visit - www.cbse.gov.in

History Class- XII 
Sample Paper- Year 1998


Q.1. Why have the Saiyid Brothers been called the 'kingmakers? (2 marks)
Ans. Mughal emperor Farukh Siyar who ruled in 1713 AD, owed his victory to Saiyid Brothers, Abdullah Khan and Jusain Ali Khan Barahow. The duo helped Farrukh Siyar to defeat Jahandar Shah and in return took up the office of wazir and mir bakshi. The two brothers soon acquired dominant control over the affairs of the state. Farrukh Siyar lacked the capacity to rule but he was not in favor of the two brothers controlling the empire. Thus, there ensued a prolonged struggle for power between the emperor and the Brothers. In the end, in 1919, the Saiyid brothers deposed and killed Farrukh Siyar .In his place they raised to the throne in quick succession two young princes who died of consumption. The princes were replaced by young Muhammad Shah, another puppet emperor under the control of the brothers. Thus, from 1713 until 1720, the Saiyid brothers wielded powers while the real emperor having no control to rule. This gave them the title of being the 'kingmakers'.

Q.2 Describe the conflicts between the English and the French companies in India in the 18th century. What were the causes of these conflicts and how and when were these conflicts finally resolved?
(8 marks)
The bitter struggle between the British and the French to secure political authority in South India lasted from 1744 to 1763 AD. The central authority had weakened in South India after Auranzeb's death. This has resulted in politically unsettled conditions and administrative disorganization. These conditions gave the foreigners an opportunity to expand their political influence over the South Indian states. The English East India Company was not alone in putting forward commercial and political claims. While it was able to eliminate the Dutch and the Portuguese from South India by the end of 17th century, France had appeared as a new rival. For nearly twenty years from 1744 to 1763 AD the French and the British indulged in bitter warfare for control over the trade, wealth and territory of India.

This struggle is famous by the name of the Three Carnatic Wars. The first Carnatic war took place between 1746 -1748 AD, when both the French and the English fought to gain monopoly over Indian trade and territory. The war that was fought between these two rivals in Europe was now extended in India.The British conquered Madras and the French tried to increase their influence in other parts of South. The second Carnatic war took place from 1749 to 1754 AD . A civil war broke out in south between Nasir Jung and Muzaffar Jung after the death of Nizam of Hydrabad. Also, Chanda sahib began to conspire against the Nawab Anwaruddin in Carnatic.The ambitious French officer Dupleix seized this opportunity to conclude a secret treaty with Chanda sahib and Muzaffar Jang to help them with his well trained French forces. The three allies soon defeated both, Nasir Jang and Nawab Anwauddin. In return the French received many gifts as well as trading monopoly in South. But the English were not silent spectators to the rising French power. To offset the French influence, they intrigued with Nasir Jang and Muhammad Ali (son of deposed Nawab Anwaruddin) . Muhammad Ali, with the support of British army, attacked Arcot, the capital of Carnatic.

The French forces were repeatedly defeated and Chanda Sahib was captured and killed. The French fortunes were at ebb after the defeat. They negotiated peace with British in 1754. The temporary peace between the two companies ended in 1756 when another war broke out between the English and the French which was mainly an extension of the seven -years war between the two in Europe.In 1760, British commander, Sir Ayer Coot defeated the French disastrously at Wande Wash. The British occupied Pondicherry after defeating the French completely. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763 AD. This war was the third and the last Anglo -French war. After this, the French influence in India ended forever and British were now facilitated to expand their dominion in India.


Q. Describe the system of Subsidiary Alliances introduced by the English East India Company's government in India. Give an assessment, with examples of the success of this system in the consolidation and expansion of the British Empire.
Ans .
The Subsidiary Alliance system was introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1798 AD .Its main purpose was to expand the British empire in India by conquering new territories and to decrease the French influence so that The British could become the paramount power in India. The British , under the subsidiary alliance system, agreed to protect the Indian rulers against external threats and internal disorder but , in return ,the Indian rulers who agreed to the Subsidiary Alliance system were to agree to the stationing of British contingent for whose maintenance they would pay a subsidy to the British.

The ruler under the system of alliance could neither enter into alliance with any other power nor fight a war without prior permission from the British. A British resident was stationed at these ruling states that had the authority to interfere in state politics. This system was suited best to the advantage of the British as, without even spending a single penny the British were able to maintain large forces. Moreover this system enabled the English to weed out the foreign influence from the Indian courts. The Nizam of Hydrabad was first to enter into a subsidiary alliance with the English in 1798 AD. He was forced to replace the French officers from his court and put English officers in their place. He also granted the territories of Bellari and Cudappah to British for the maintenance of the army. Nizam of Hydrabad was followed by the Nawab of Oudh in1801 AD .

He ceded his control over Rohilkhand, Gorakhpur, and the territories between Ganga and Yamuna to the British. The British also extended the subsidiary alliance to Peshwa Baji Rao who had to pay twentysix lakh rupees a year to the British and accept their supremacy .The Gaekwads of Baroda were the fourth Indian rulers who entered into Subsidiary Alliance. The ruler of Travancore and the Rajput states followed suit. The Indian rulers who did not accept the Subsidiary alliance voluntarily were faced with the wrath of the Britishers. A clear example is the case of Tipu Sultan of Mysore, who fought four battles with British and finally died in the battlefield trying to protect his empire from the English. The Nawab of Surat and the Nawab of Carnatic were also forced to accept the Subsidiary Alliance in the year 1801 and 1803 AD, without their consent. In retrospect, one could say that the Subsidiary Alliance System , started by Lord Wellesley, was one of the most powerful system under which the Britishers were able to annex several dominions in India and raised the East India Company to the status of a paramount power.

Q. 3. What were the causes of conflict between the English East India Company and Nawab Siraj -Ud -Daulah of Bengal? When and how did this conflict end? (5 marks)
Ans. To trace the causes of conflict between the East India Company and Nawab Siraj -Ud -Daulah that led to the battle of Buxar, one has to review the developments of later half of 18th century. Bengal had emerged a s the most fertile and richest of the Indian provinces. The British East India Company had secured valuable privileges in 1717 under a royal farman by the Mughal emperor, which had granted the company the freedom to export and import their goods in Bengal without paying taxes and the right to issue passes and dastaks for the movement of such goods.

This Farman was a perpetual source of conflict between the Company and the Nawabs of Bengal for it meant loss of revenue to the Bengal government. Also, the Company's corrupt officers misused the dastaks by issuing them to their traders who were thereby able to evade taxes. It not only deprived the nawab of revenue but also ruined the honest Indian trader. Matters came to head when the quick-tempered Siraj -ud - daulah succeeded the throne of Bengal. He demanded of English that they should trade on the same basis as in the times of Murshid quli Khan.

The English refused to do so and instead started building fortification in Calcutta without the permission of the Nawab. The battle of Plassey soon followed in 1757 in which the Nawab was defeated and British placed Mir Zafar , in his place but in 1760 Mir Zafar was forced to abdicate in favour of his son -in -law Mir Qasim. It was Mir Qasim who belied the hopes of the British and instead of acting according to the British demands, he soon emerged as a major threat to their position and designs in Bengal. He formed an alliance with Shuja-ud-daulah, Nawab of Awadh and Shah Alam in1763. The three allies clashed with the company's army at battle of Buxar on October 1764 and were thoroughly defeated. The ruling power of Bengal was transferred from the Nawab to the Company .


Q. How did the concept of equality before law introduced by the British in India operate in practice?
Ans. The Indian legal system under the British was based on the concept of equality before law. In theory, this meant that that all men were equal before the law. The same law would apply to all persons irrespective of their caste, religion, or class. But in practice, justice was not same for all men. The Europeans and their descendants had separate courts and laws. In criminal cases only European judges who gave undue protection and consequently light or no punishment to their counterparts could try them. Justice in India was quite expensive, as court fees had to be paid lawyers engaged, and the expenses of the witness met. The courts were often situated in distant towns and the complicated laws were beyond the grasp of the illiterate and ignorant Indian populace. More often than not, it was the rich who were able to manipulate the laws and courts to operate in their own favour. Moreover, the widespread prevalence of corruption in the ranks of the police and the rest of the administrative machinery led to the denial of justice in most of the cases.

Q.4 What were the causes of religious discontent against the British rule? How did they contribute to the outbreak of the revolt of 1857?
(5 marks)

Ans. British introduced many religious and social changes which became the causes of discontent among the Indians in the beginning of the 19th century. Along with establishing an empire in India, the British propagated Western culture and Christianity which was resented by orthodox Indian population. The reforms such as banning the custom of sati , human sacrifice and child marriage created an atmosphere of suspicion among Indians who saw these reforms as an attack on Indian customs and religion. The Christian missionaries were also responsible for the rise of discontent among Indians. Both the Hindus and the Muslims inhabiting India had great faith in their religion but the English missionaries used abusive language for their great saints. They did not pay any respect to the high priests of Muslims and Hindus who enjoyed considerable power and support of Indian population. It was the high priests who instigated both Hindus and Muslims against the British at the time of revolt of 1857.


Q. Why did the modern educated Indians did not support the revolt of 1857?
Ans One of main reason for the failure of the mighty revolt of 1857 was the non-participation of masses. Many sections of the Indian population did not provide their support to the Revolt. One such section was the modern educated Indians. This class was repelled by the rebel's appeals to superstitions and their opposition to progressive social measures. The Indian intellegensia wanted to end the backwardness of their country by removing illiteracy and introducing modern reforms. They mistakenly believed that the British rule would help them accomplish these tasks of modernisation while the rebels, led by zamindars, old rulers and chieftains and other feudal elements, would take the country backward. The dreams of this educated class were shattered by late 19th century when they learned from experience that foreign rule was incapable of modernising the country and that it would instead impoverish it and keep it backward.

Q.5. What were the causes of the sudden and quick collapse of Indian handicrafts industry under the British? What were its consequences? (8 marks)
Ans. The Indian economy was based on handicraft industries and agriculture before the Britishers came in India. Much of the production was based on cottage and small-scale industries. The works of Indian goldsmiths, blacksmiths, cotton weavers, silk weavers were in great demanding not only in India but also abroad .The 18th century witnessed the emergence of industrial revolution in Britain. The industrial revolution created the need for Indian raw material but it ruined the handicraft industry as the British manufactured goods now flooded Indian markets at much lower costs. This was done through the one- way free trade strategy of British in 1813which allowed the invasion of British manufactures in India, in particular cotton textiles .

The Indian goods made with primitive technique s could not compete with goods produced on mass scale by powerful steam -operated machines. The demand for the Indian handicraft was strategically barred by imposing high tariff duties on Indian exports such as manufactured silk and cotton cloth apparels The ruin of Indian Industries, particularly rural handicrafts, proceeded more rapidly once the railways was built .The railways enabled British manufactures to reach and uproot the traditional industries in the remotest villages of the country at far more cheaper prices and attractive colours .The cotton weaving and spinning industry were the worst hit. Silk and woollen textiles fared no better and similar fate overtook the iron, pottery, glass, paper, metal, guns, shipping, tanning and dyeing industries. The modern industries, which were opened in India, were controlled and financed by the Britishers to cater to their own needs. India lacked heavy industries such as metallurgy, machine, fertiliser's etc. which made Indians import it from abroad. The government did not give any economic support to the development of such industries.


Mention the causes of stagnation and deterioration of Indian agriculture under the British. What was its impact on the Indian population?
Ans. The British rule in India in 19th century witnessed a rapid transformation of India’s economy into a colonial economy whose nature and structure were determined by the needs of the imperial government. The deindustrialization of Indian industries increased the dependence of our population on agriculture with no alternative source of income in sight. The excessive land revenue demands, growth of landlordism, introduction of new land holding policies i.e., ryotwary and permanent settlements and growing impoverishment of Indian peasantry without any government backing resulted in stagnation of Indian Agriculture with extremely low yields per year. The overall agricultural production fell by 14% between 1901-1931. The British replaced the old landlords with new urban-based landlords who had no interest in the land. Their main objective was to collect maximum amount of revenue unmindful of the plight of the peasants.

The British government paid little heed to the agricultural sector and it remained technologically stagnant with no modern equipment or fertilizers. Traditional methods of irrigation further resurrected the growth. The British Economic policy had an adverse effect on the Indian population. British government by ruining the Indian industries increased pressure on agriculture. The artisans and the craftsmen were now forced to settle in villages, which increased the pressure. With increase in the number of the peasants the small land holdings were further divided. The British, instead of giving concessions to the peasants, added to their woes through their policies. Under such policies the peasant was forced to pay taxes as well as subjected to force labour apart from land revenue.

The Government realised land revenue with severity. It went on increasing land revenue considerably but spent very little on the improvement of agriculture. It auctioned the land of the peasant who was unable to pay rent due to him. In order to escape such circumstances, the peasant himself pawned or sold a part of his land to pay rent. The illiterate was further burdened when he borrowed from the moneylenders on high rate of interests. The poverty of the Indians due to economic degeneration found its culmination in a series of famines, which ravaged all parts of India in the second half of the 19th century. India's economic backwardness was man- made as it had abundant natural resources with a capability of yielding a high degree of prosperity to the people. But this British colony presented a paradox of poor people living in a rich country under imperialism.

Q.6 Mention the change in the attitude of the British towards the Indian Princely states after 1858.What were the reason for this change? (5 marks)
Ans. The revolt of 1857 was a symbol of a rebellion by the Indian population against the suppression of the British rule .The princely states played an important role in the rising of the revolt. The British were so frightened with the revolt that the possibility of another uprising always haunted them. They also realised the need to create buffer states, which could aid and support British. They therefore tried to win the sympathy of the Indian rulers. They were now assured that under no circumstances their states would be taken away from them as opposed to Dalhousie's policy of "doctrine of lapse". Hindu rulers were now allowed to adopt sons. Thus the 562 Indian royal families now became loyal to the British Government. This fulfilled the ambitions of the English, as they now were able to win the support of the local rulers who had a considerable amount of Indian population under their control.


Mention the changes introduced by the British in the Indian Army after 1858. Why were these changes introduced?
Ans. The Indian sepoys played a dominant role in Revolt of 1857.The British carefully reorganised the Indian army after 1857, mainly to prevent the recurrence of another revolt. Several steps were taken to minimise the capacity of Indian soldiers to revolt. The proportion of Europeans to Indians in the army was raised and fixed at one to two in Bengal armies and two to five Madras and Bombay armies. Moreover, the crucial branches of the army like the artillery and, later in the 20th century, tanks and armoured corps were put exclusively under British soldiers.

The Indians were now restricted to join the officer corps. The British used the policy of Divide and rule in the army by discriminating the soldiers on the basis of caste, region and religion. Communal, caste, tribal and regional loyalties were encouraged among soldiers so that the sentiment of nationalism would not grow among them. Efforts were also made to keep the army separated from the life and thoughts of the civilian populace by banning the purchase of newspapers, journals and the nationalist publications. But, despite the efforts of the British to keep its soldiers as mercenary forces one witness that it were these forces which played an important role in the freedom struggle later.




Q.7. Mention the main contributions of Syyed Ahmed Khan in the field of education. (2 marks)
Ans. In 19th century, Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan emerged as the most outstanding reformer among the Muslim population. Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan introduced several reforms for the promotion of Muslims. He interpreted this holy text in the light of intellectualism and science. He inspired the Muslims to become liberal and free from social evils. He gave top priority to western education. In 1875, he founded Muhammedan Anglo - Oriental School at Aligarh which, in 1920, expanded, to become the Aligarh Muslim University.

Q.8. What were the main differences that divided the Congress after the Non -Co-operation Movement? Describe the main activities in which the Congress leaders holding different views were involved? (5 marks)
Ans. On 1 February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi started the civil disobedience and the non-co-operation movement but the Chaura Chauri incident of violence made Gandhi withdrew the movement. Thus, the wave of nationalism under Gandhi started ebbing and it created differences between the Congress leaders such as Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru and C.R.Das. These two leaders pleaded for Indians to enter the legislative councils to obstruct the government plan of using these councils for their own use. They were more revolutionised in their plan for achieving independence. On the other hand, congress leaders such as Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, Dr. Ansari and Rajendra Prasad continued to give their support to Gandhi and opposed the council entry programme. They wanted to attain self -governance without violence.

It was under these circumstances that C.R. Das and Pundit Nehru created the Swarajya Party in December 1922 AD. Q. When was the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association set up? Explain the ideas that the leaders of this association advocated. Ans. The Hindustan Socialist Association (HSRA) was formed in 1928 AD under the leadership of Chandra Shekhar Azad. Initially it was known as the Hindustan Republican Association which, was organised with an aim of organising an armed revolution against the British .

The name was changed when its revolutionary came under socialist ideas. These men gradually moved from individual heroic actions and act of violence to change their agenda and explained to people the need for a revolution by the masses. The members of the HSRA included Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Lala Lajpatrai. Their ideas were more akin to Marxism -Leninism .They wanted to overthrow the British rule in India and establish Socialism and Democracy. They sought to inculcate feeling of Nationalism and patriotism among masses.

Q.9. What were the British objectives in partitioning of Bengal in 1905? What were its consequences? (5 marks)
Ans. On 20th July 1905, Lord Curzon issued an order dividing the province of Bengal into two parts. Eastern Bengal and Assam with the population of 31 million, and the rest of Bengal with the population of 54 million, of whom 18 million were Bengalis and 36 million Biharis and Oriyas. It was said that the existing province of Bengal was too big to be efficiently administered by a single provincial Government.

But the real motive of division of Bengal by the English was to stem the growing tide of Nationalism in Bengal, considered at that time to be the nerve centre of Indian Nationalism. The Indian people saw the partition as a challenge to Indian Nationalism and not merely an administrative measure. They saw it as a deliberate attempt to divide the Bengalis territorially and on religious grounds. They organised the anti -partition movement on 7th August 1905. On that day, a massive demonstration against the partition was organised. The day of Partition was observed as a day of fasting and mourning by the Nationalists .The agitation against the partition of Bengal in 1905 made a deep impact on the Indian National Congress. Both the extremist as well as the moderates joined together to oppose the partition. They now launched a swadeshi and the boycott movement to oppose British.


When and with what objective was the Ghadar Party established? Describe its activities during the First World War.
Ans. The Ghadar party was organised by the Indian Nationalist Revolutionaries living in the U.S.A and Canada in 1913 AD. It was chiefly composed of immigrants, soldiers, and peasants of Punjab. But leadership to this party was provided by educated Hindus and Muslims .Its prominent leaders were Baba Gurmukh Singh, Bhai Parmanand, Kartar Singh Saraba etc It was from these leaders from whom the revolutionary terrorism took inspiration as they were ready to lay down their lives for the cause.

The party's objective was to support the Indian national struggle of freedom from the British rule. For this, they gave monetary support to the Indian revolutionaries. The party's ideology was very secular. The members of the party were strong patriots. During the First World War in 1914, the members of the Ghadar party sent arms and monetary support to Indian revolutionaries. They even decided to launch an armed revolt in Punjab.

Q.10 What was the objective of the Khilafat Movement? (2 marks)
Ans. The Khilafat movement was organised under the leadership of the Ali brothers, Maulana Azad and Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani. It s main objective was to oppose the British attempt to dismemberment of the Turkish Empire and abolish the seat of caliph. The movement launched a nation wide agitation against the injustice meted out to the Ottoman Empire.

Q. 11. When and why did the congress decide to launch the civil -Disobedience movement? How was the movement started? Describe the main methods of struggle, which were adopted.
Ans. The Civil Disobedience Movement marked the beginning of the new movement in the struggle for freedom as it declares the Purna Swaraj as its aim. The movement began with Gandhi breaking the salt law at Dandi, a small village on the seacoast of Gujrat on March 12, 1930 AD. The Civil Disobedience Movement was a high mark in India’s national struggle against the British rule. It united the Indians against the atrocities of the Britishers. It was a symbol of disobedience to the government orders. It also aroused political awakening among the Indians and made them bold enough to face any challenge.

The Movement was followed with strikes, processions and demonstrations. Boycott of foreign goods was launched and the whole nation joined in non-payment of government taxes. Soon this movement attained the shape of the greatest mass movement under the leadership of Gandhi. Even women did not lag behind in their enthusiasm. They joined the men in picketing the foreign wine and cloth shops The movement engulfed the Indian subcontinent. Khan Abbul Gafar Khan, popularly known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’ started Khudai Khitmadgar Movement.The movement also reached the eastern part of India where the people of Manipur and Nagaland. More than 90,000 patriots who participated in the civil disobedience movement from various parts of India were put in jails. Some of them faced life imprisonment and inhuman treatment but these government atrocities, instead of weakening the movement, strengthened it further


Q. Read the following statement made by Rabindranath Tagore while renouncing his Knighthood and answer the questions that follow: "The time has come when badges of honor make our shame glaring in their incongruous context of humiliation and I for my part wish to stand shorn of all special distinctions, by the side of my countrymen who, for their so called insignificance, are liable to suffer degradation not fit for human beings."

(1)What was the incident because of which Tagore renounced his knighthood?
Ans. 1
The incident was the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, which took place on April 13, 1919. On this day, General Dyer ordered firing on a peaceful gathering of demonstrators in Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. Rabindra Nath Tagore renounced his knighthood after this incident as the suffering and helplessness of his countrymen moved him.

(2)What were the developments that led to the incident?
Ans. 2
The First World War ended in 1918 AD. It was followed by the Great Depression. India was affected in a big way. Many people were rendered jobless after the closing of Industries. Peasants and handicraft workers suffered hardships and losses. The passage of Rowllatt Act in 1919 AD further created resentment among people and Gandhi announced his plan for Satyagraha. Strikes were organized throughout the nation. The Government retaliated by arresting Dr. Satya Pal and Dr. Kitchlu in Amritsar. More than 20,000 people gathered at Jallian wala Bagh to protest against the arrests when General Dyer, without any prior warning, opened fire.

(3)Discuss the impact of this incident on the struggle for freedom. (8 marks)
Ans.3 The Jallianwala Bagh incident had a deep impact on people. They now lost faith in peaceful processions and gatherings and took to extremist path to get rid of the imperial rule. Many revolutionary groups were formed whose main aim was 'do or die ' to free their country from the British. The Government too let loose worst kind of repression. Martial Law was let loose in Punjab. Many innocent people were arrested and tortured. Mahatama Gandhi was arrested along with other leaders.

Soon after his release, he organized the Non -Co-operation movement and gave full support to Ali Brothers for Khilafat Movement. Many people left their Government jobs and surrendered their medals and awards or honours bestowed upon them by the Government. RabindraNath Tagore was one of them. In retrospect, one could say that Jullianwala Bagh Massacre marred permanently, the relation between the Government and its Indian subjects .It promoted nationalism as people belonging to different sections of society were now united against British Government and the atrocities it inflicted on Indian masses.




Q.13. What is meant by 'western front' in the context of the First World War? (2 marks)
Ans. The western side of Europe where the First World War started in 1914 AD. Is commonly known as the 'western front' .The European forces of Germany, Britain, England fought on this front. U.S.A later joined the Allies i.e. Britain and France. These three powers waged continuous battles on Germany, which finally led to her defeat. Some of the famous battles fought on western front were the battle of Marne, Battle of Verdum, Battle of Somme, Battle of Daggerbank and Battle of Jutland.

Q. 14 Why were the conflicts in Europe in early years of the 20th century connected with the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire? Explain with examples. (5 marks)
Ans. Some of the tensions in Europe, which culminated into First World War, were connected with the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. Till the early 19th century the entire Balkan Peninsula was a part of the Ottoman Empire. Throughout the 19th century, there were wars between the Ottoman and Russian Empires. Russian attempts to extend her control over the Ottomans were thwarted by the other European nations such as Britain, Germany, Austria Hungry. By the 20th century the Ottoman rule over the Balkans had had all but ended. Serbia, Bulgaria and Albania had emerged as independent states. However, the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire did not solve the problem of nationalities in Europe. Serbia, now independent, emerged as the champion of the Slav people, many of whom inhabited the Austria - Hungary Empire. She depended on Russian support in her ambition to create Greater Serbia, which would include the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina that were under Austria -Hungary. She started encouraging discontent in these states and organised conspiracies against Austria -Hungary. This region soon became source of increasing tensions in Europe and finally provided the incident, which led to the First World War.


What is meant by 'Second international'? Explain its attitude towards the danger of War in Europe before 1914 AD.
Ans. The second international was formed in 1889 and a congress were held in Paris, the French capital city. Its aim was to unite the socialist parties of the world. Though its main aim was propagation of socialism, but it also worked towards retaining peace and international brotherhood in the world. It tried to destroy capitalism and carry a struggle against militarism and wars. It was against Imperialism. Some of its leaders wanted to bring a socialist revolution in the World while others wanted to transform the world without the revolution. It was decided to educate the colonial people and give support to the rising nationalism in the Colonies. Peace and Human brotherhood were the two most important ideals of the second international. It had an agenda for the workers of the world to unite against the race of armaments. It adopted a resolution of militarism and international conflicts.

Q. 15. Do you agree with the view that the treaty of Versailles sowed seeds of the Second World War? Give reasons in support of your answer. (5 marks)
Ans. The First World War came to an end in November 1918 AD Soon after, a peace conference was held in Paris to decide the terms of the treaty after the war. The peace treaty which Germany was forced to sign with the victorious powers is commonly known as the treaty of Versailles. It was signed at the palace of Versailles on June 28, 1919 AD. It was the treaty of Versailles, which sowed seeds of the Second World War. The treaty of Versailles made Germany guilty of the war. She was compelled to cede her territory of Poland, Denmark, and Belgium etc. to the victorious powers. A new state of Poland was carved out of German territory. Denzing was made a free city. Germany was further debarred from joining with Austria. The victorious French took the German territory of Alsace and Loraine. It also got the right to exploit the rich coal mines of Saar, which came under German influence. Most of German colonies in Africa such as, Togoland, Congo, Cameroons were redistributed among British and the French. The military strength of Germany was reduced. Last, but not the lease, Germany was made to accept the war guilt and had to pay heavy sum of 6,600million dollars as war indemnity to the allies. The provisions of the treaty were, obviously very harsh. The Germans were insulted and retaliated by emerging a major fascist power under the leadership of Hitler who led the world to the Second World War.


Q. Describe the economic policies followed by the Russian Government immediately after the success of the Bolshevik Revolution, Why were these policies given up in 1921?
The Russian revolution of 1917 was an important event in the World history. It marked the end of the autocratic rule of Czar Nicholas of Russia and the beginning of democracy and socialism. The power now passed in the hands of the people and the dictatorship of the proletariat or working class was set up under the leadership of Lenin. The Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic, under the rule of the Bolsheviks, introduced many economic reforms. The individual ownership over the means of production was now abolished and the motive of personal profits was eliminated from the system of production. The right to work was now made a constitutional right and the state took active measure to provide employment under its five-year plan over capital was discouraged. All means of economy were made available for the development of the nation with an aim of attaining social equality .In the rural sector, land was forcibly taken away from the landlords and redistributed among farmers. All the debts of the farmers were remitted. In the long run these economic policies proved fatal, especially after Lenin's death. As a result, the process of the economic policies was reversed due to rampant corruption and inadequacy to run the economic plan smoothly. Due to this reason many of the economic policies were abandoned.

Q. 16. In February 1933, the Reichstag building was set up on fire. How was this system made use of by Hitler? (2 marks)
Ans. On 30th February, Adolph Hitler was appointed the Chancellor of Germany. After coming to power he set about to consolidate his ruler in Germany but he lacked the support of the masses to win the elections and become a part of the reichstag or the German parliament. Five days before the elections, which were to be held on March 5, 1933, Hitler set the reichstag on fire. This was done to create a reign of terror among the people and to intimidate them in voting Hitler in the elections.

Q.17. How was Czechoslovakia affected after the signing of the Munich pact? (2 marks)
Ans. The independent state of Czechoslovakia, which was created after the First World War, was dismembered with the signing of the Munich Pact on September 29, 1938. The German claim over Sudenteland, a part of the Czech territory, was accepted. The Czech lost their independence as England, France, Italy, and Germany jointly took responsibility of security of Czechoslovakia.

Q.18. Why is the battle of Stalingrad considered important in the history of the Second World War? Explain. (5 marks)
Ans. the battle of Stalingrad was fought between Russia and Germany on Russian territory. It is an important battle in the history of the Second World War as it marked the defeat of Germany as well as the defeat of Hitler and his Nazi party. The events, which led to the battle of Stalingrad, are as follows. Hitler had signed a non- aggression treaty with Russia in August 1939 AD. But, he had no faith in Russia and considered her as a vital threat to Nazi Germany.

He also had Imperial designs on the fertile Ukraine basin and its mines. He also wanted to Europeanize the area of the Asian steppe .For these reasons he violated the pact of 1939 and attacked Russia from three sides. A fierce battle was fought in Stalingrad, near Moscow but the Germans failed to capture Stalingrad as the German soldiers were taken unawares by the heavy rains and frosts in the month of October for which the German army was unprepared. Hitler's campaign failed miserably. Out of 3,30,00 soldiers only 12,000 survived. It was the first mistake, which changed the fate of Germany as well as Hitler. It led to German defeat and eventually, the end of the Second World War.


Q. When did the USA enter the Second World War? Make an assessment of her role in influencing the outcome of the War.
Ans. The Second World War began in 1939. In the beginning US remained neutral to the war which was restricted to Europe. It allowed Britain to buy arms on cash basis. Germany attacked Russian June 1941. . The French and the British were drawn into the war as they supported Russians. President Roosevelt signed the Atlantic Charter with British Prime Minister Churchill to declare the war aim and to destroy Nazi Germany. Russia also became a party to the charter. On December 1941, Japan, which was Germany's ally, attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor. It led to the destruction of many US aircraft's, battleships, armours and naval bases. US had no option but to retaliate. It declared War on Japan on December 8, 1941. Germany and Italy joined Japanese forces. US declared war with Germany and Italy. Thus the US entry in the war made it a global war. US made 3,00,000 aircraft's and 85,000 tankers. It was now called as the 'arsenal of victory'.

Q.19. Describe the major European developments between 1945 and 1949, which created tensions between USA and the Soviet Union and led to the Cold War? (8 marks)
Ans. The Second World War ended in 1945 AD. During the war period, The USA and USSR forgot their ideological differences and came together to restore peace in the World.But toward the end of the War, the harmony that existed between Russia and USA ended, their ideological differences came to the forefront which guided them towards the Cold War. Russia, being a socialist country, tried to spread the idea of socialism and democracy throughout the World. It asked for the workers of the world to unite together and created strong Workers union throughout the World. Russia tried to spread her influence by spreading communism in different parts of the World especially in Eastern Europe.

Communist regimes were set up in Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia etc. It aroused fear and threat in Britain, France and USA. These socialist ideas were seen as a threat by the USA as being a capitalist country herself, her economy largely depended on Monopoly capitalism, where a few Capitalist thrived on the labor of the working class. The USSR call for the workers to unite was seen as a threat to USA's economy, polity and society. Relations between the Soviet Union and the USA became difficult as they stood forth as rivals though no actual armed conflict took place directly between the two opposing camps. This post war fear, tension, suspicion, and hostility between the two nations has been termed as the cold war. The world was divided into two power blocs, the Russian Bloc and the American Bloc. In order to reduce the Russian influence, America organized NATO with the help of the European countries.

To counteract it, Russia laid the foundation of the Warsaw pact with the help of the eastern countries. The race of armaments started in a big way where each country tried to outdo the other in creating atomic and nuclear power. After the Second World War the capitalist countries tried to interfere in the politics of other small countries to check the growth of communism. They began to crush the national movements of India and China. USA interfered in the Vietnam crisis by sending its troops to fight the Vietnam's rising tide of communism. US also interfered in the Arab politics by supporting Israel's Imperialist designs over Palestine. It were these tensions which threatened the world peace between 1945 to 1949 AD.


Q. When and why did USA send its troops to fight a war in Vietnam? Explain the factor that brought the war in Vietnam to an end.
Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia comprises Indo -China which was a French colony till 1940 AD. When Germany overran France in 1940 Vietnam was transferred under the control of Japan. During this time the Vietnamese organized a people's army called the Viet Minh under the leadership of Ho-Chi-Minh. to resist the Japanese occupation. By the end of the Second World War, the Vietnamese had liberated a large part of their country form Japanese occupation. In August 1945 AD , the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed under the leadership of Ho-Chi- Minh .

This Democratic Republic operated under the influence of the USSR. Which supported the Vietnamese Nationalism. Soon the allies i.e. The British and the English send its troops in Vietnam to support and sponsor a nominally independent ruler, Bau Dai , the emperor of Anam. The Soviet Union recognized Ho-Chi- Minh 's regime while the Capitalist allies along with USA as their leader supported Bau Dai.By the Geneva conference, Vietnam was divided into North and South .North was ruled by Ho-Chih -Minh under Russian support and South was ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem under the influence of USA. It was also decided in the conference that elections would be held in within two years to decide the fate of Vietnam.

The Government of South Vietnam refused to hold elections under full support of USA who, under no circumstances wanted to unite Vietnam as its unity guaranteed the threat of communism Consequently, in 1960, there broke out an uprising against the government of South Vietnam. The USA suppressed this uprising by sending thousands of its troops to Vietnam. The American troops carried the suppression to North Vietnam and caused incalculable damage to the Vietnamese and suffered heavy causalities themselves. This mindless war lasted for about eighteen years. By the end of 1975, Americans lost 54,000 soldiers. USA was condemned for its undue interference. Under heavy pressure USA was forced to call back its troops to restore peace in Vietnam. Atlas , in 1975 AD, the American troops left South Vietnam for good.

Q.20. What is the theme of Pablo Picasso's painting 'Guernica'?
(2 marks)s

Ans Picasso, a Spaniard, contributed much to the modern art movement and left a rich legacy of his work after his death. His painting 'Guernica' is named after a town in Spain. This is a life-size painting on the atrocities committed by the Nazis and the Fascist against the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War.

Q.21 Mention the names of any two writers of South Africa during the period of apartheid. (2 marks)
Ans. Among the South Indian writers, who wrote during the period of apartheid, two names are particularly renowned, the poet Denis Brutus and the Novelist Alex la Guma. Both of them, through their literary talents depict the horrors of tortures inflicted on African people under racism, by the Americans.


Q. When and who became the president of Africa when the rule of the white minority was ended?
Ans Nelson Mandela became the President of South Africa when the rule of the White minority came to an end in the year 1944.

Q. 22. Mention any one major scientific discovery of the 20TH century, which led to dangerous consequences for the human kind.
(2 marks)

Ans. The discovery of atomic bomb was one major scientific discovery, which led to dangerous consequences for the human kind in the 20th century. It became a major threat to world peace.