Sample Paper- Year 1998 (Solved)
Q.1. Why have the
Saiyid Brothers been called the 'kingmakers? (2 marks)
Ans. Mughal emperor Farukh Siyar who ruled in 1713 AD, owed his victory
to Saiyid Brothers, Abdullah Khan and Jusain Ali Khan Barahow. The duo helped
Farrukh Siyar to defeat Jahandar Shah and in return took up the office of wazir
and mir bakshi. The two brothers soon acquired dominant control over the affairs
of the state. Farrukh Siyar lacked the capacity to rule but he was not in favor
of the two brothers controlling the empire. Thus, there ensued a prolonged
struggle for power between the emperor and the Brothers. In the end, in 1919,
the Saiyid brothers deposed and killed Farrukh Siyar .In his place they raised
to the throne in quick succession two young princes who died of consumption. The
princes were replaced by young Muhammad Shah, another puppet emperor under the
control of the brothers. Thus, from 1713 until 1720, the Saiyid brothers wielded
powers while the real emperor having no control to rule. This gave them the
title of being the 'kingmakers'.
Q.2 Describe the
conflicts between the English and the French companies in India in the 18th
century. What were the causes of these conflicts and how and when were these
conflicts finally resolved?
Ans. The bitter struggle between the British and the French to secure
political authority in South India lasted from 1744 to 1763 AD. The central
authority had weakened in South India after Auranzeb's death. This has resulted
in politically unsettled conditions and administrative disorganization. These
conditions gave the foreigners an opportunity to expand their political
influence over the South Indian states. The English East India Company was not
alone in putting forward commercial and political claims. While it was able to
eliminate the Dutch and the Portuguese from South India by the end of 17th
century, France had appeared as a new rival. For nearly twenty years from 1744
to 1763 AD the French and the British indulged in bitter warfare for control
over the trade, wealth and territory of India.
This struggle is famous by the name
of the Three Carnatic Wars. The first Carnatic war took place between 1746 -1748
AD, when both the French and the English fought to gain monopoly over Indian
trade and territory. The war that was fought between these two rivals in Europe
was now extended in India.The British conquered Madras and the French tried to
increase their influence in other parts of South. The second Carnatic war took
place from 1749 to 1754 AD . A civil war broke out in south between Nasir Jung
and Muzaffar Jung after the death of Nizam of Hydrabad. Also, Chanda sahib began
to conspire against the Nawab Anwaruddin in Carnatic.The ambitious French
officer Dupleix seized this opportunity to conclude a secret treaty with Chanda
sahib and Muzaffar Jang to help them with his well trained French forces. The
three allies soon defeated both, Nasir Jang and Nawab Anwauddin. In return the
French received many gifts as well as trading monopoly in South. But the English
were not silent spectators to the rising French power. To offset the French
influence, they intrigued with Nasir Jang and Muhammad Ali (son of deposed Nawab
Anwaruddin) . Muhammad Ali, with the support of British army, attacked Arcot,
the capital of Carnatic.
The French forces were repeatedly
defeated and Chanda Sahib was captured and killed. The French fortunes were at
ebb after the defeat. They negotiated peace with British in 1754. The temporary
peace between the two companies ended in 1756 when another war broke out between
the English and the French which was mainly an extension of the seven -years war
between the two in Europe.In 1760, British commander, Sir Ayer Coot defeated the
French disastrously at Wande Wash. The British occupied Pondicherry after
defeating the French completely. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763
AD. This war was the third and the last Anglo -French war. After this, the
French influence in India ended forever and British were now facilitated to
expand their dominion in India.
Q. Describe the
system of Subsidiary Alliances introduced by the English East India Company's
government in India. Give an assessment, with examples of the success of this
system in the consolidation and expansion of the British Empire.
Ans . The Subsidiary Alliance system was introduced by Lord Wellesley in
1798 AD .Its main purpose was to expand the British empire in India by
conquering new territories and to decrease the French influence so that The
British could become the paramount power in India. The British , under the
subsidiary alliance system, agreed to protect the Indian rulers against external
threats and internal disorder but , in return ,the Indian rulers who agreed to
the Subsidiary Alliance system were to agree to the stationing of British
contingent for whose maintenance they would pay a subsidy to the British.
The ruler under the system of
alliance could neither enter into alliance with any other power nor fight a war
without prior permission from the British. A British resident was stationed at
these ruling states that had the authority to interfere in state politics. This
system was suited best to the advantage of the British as, without even spending
a single penny the British were able to maintain large forces. Moreover this
system enabled the English to weed out the foreign influence from the Indian
courts. The Nizam of Hydrabad was first to enter into a subsidiary alliance with
the English in 1798 AD. He was forced to replace the French officers from his
court and put English officers in their place. He also granted the territories
of Bellari and Cudappah to British for the maintenance of the army. Nizam of
Hydrabad was followed by the Nawab of Oudh in1801 AD .
He ceded his control over Rohilkhand,
Gorakhpur, and the territories between Ganga and Yamuna to the British. The
British also extended the subsidiary alliance to Peshwa Baji Rao who had to pay
twentysix lakh rupees a year to the British and accept their supremacy .The
Gaekwads of Baroda were the fourth Indian rulers who entered into Subsidiary
Alliance. The ruler of Travancore and the Rajput states followed suit. The
Indian rulers who did not accept the Subsidiary alliance voluntarily were faced
with the wrath of the Britishers. A clear example is the case of Tipu Sultan of
Mysore, who fought four battles with British and finally died in the battlefield
trying to protect his empire from the English. The Nawab of Surat and the Nawab
of Carnatic were also forced to accept the Subsidiary Alliance in the year 1801
and 1803 AD, without their consent. In retrospect, one could say that the
Subsidiary Alliance System , started by Lord Wellesley, was one of the most
powerful system under which the Britishers were able to annex several dominions
in India and raised the East India Company to the status of a paramount power.
Q. 3. What were
the causes of conflict between the English East India Company and Nawab Siraj -Ud
-Daulah of Bengal? When and how did this conflict end? (5 marks)
Ans. To trace the causes of conflict between the East India Company and
Nawab Siraj -Ud -Daulah that led to the battle of Buxar, one has to review the
developments of later half of 18th century. Bengal had emerged a s the most
fertile and richest of the Indian provinces. The British East India Company had
secured valuable privileges in 1717 under a royal farman by the Mughal emperor,
which had granted the company the freedom to export and import their goods in
Bengal without paying taxes and the right to issue passes and dastaks for the
movement of such goods.
This Farman was a perpetual source
of conflict between the Company and the Nawabs of Bengal for it meant loss of
revenue to the Bengal government. Also, the Company's corrupt officers misused
the dastaks by issuing them to their traders who were thereby able to evade
taxes. It not only deprived the nawab of revenue but also ruined the honest
Indian trader. Matters came to head when the quick-tempered Siraj -ud - daulah
succeeded the throne of Bengal. He demanded of English that they should trade on
the same basis as in the times of Murshid quli Khan.
The English refused to do so and
instead started building fortification in Calcutta without the permission of the
Nawab. The battle of Plassey soon followed in 1757 in which the Nawab was
defeated and British placed Mir Zafar , in his place but in 1760 Mir Zafar was
forced to abdicate in favour of his son -in -law Mir Qasim. It was Mir Qasim who
belied the hopes of the British and instead of acting according to the British
demands, he soon emerged as a major threat to their position and designs in
Bengal. He formed an alliance with Shuja-ud-daulah, Nawab of Awadh and Shah Alam
in1763. The three allies clashed with the company's army at battle of Buxar on
October 1764 and were thoroughly defeated. The ruling power of Bengal was
transferred from the Nawab to the Company .
Q. How did the
concept of equality before law introduced by the British in India operate in
Ans. The Indian legal system under the British was based on the concept
of equality before law. In theory, this meant that that all men were equal
before the law. The same law would apply to all persons irrespective of their
caste, religion, or class. But in practice, justice was not same for all men.
The Europeans and their descendants had separate courts and laws. In criminal
cases only European judges who gave undue protection and consequently light or
no punishment to their counterparts could try them. Justice in India was quite
expensive, as court fees had to be paid lawyers engaged, and the expenses of the
witness met. The courts were often situated in distant towns and the complicated
laws were beyond the grasp of the illiterate and ignorant Indian populace. More
often than not, it was the rich who were able to manipulate the laws and courts
to operate in their own favour. Moreover, the widespread prevalence of
corruption in the ranks of the police and the rest of the administrative
machinery led to the denial of justice in most of the cases.
Q.4 What were the
causes of religious discontent against the British rule? How did they contribute
to the outbreak of the revolt of 1857?
Ans. British introduced many religious and social changes which became
the causes of discontent among the Indians in the beginning of the 19th century.
Along with establishing an empire in India, the British propagated Western
culture and Christianity which was resented by orthodox Indian population. The
reforms such as banning the custom of sati , human sacrifice and child marriage
created an atmosphere of suspicion among Indians who saw these reforms as an
attack on Indian customs and religion. The Christian missionaries were also
responsible for the rise of discontent among Indians. Both the Hindus and the
Muslims inhabiting India had great faith in their religion but the English
missionaries used abusive language for their great saints. They did not pay any
respect to the high priests of Muslims and Hindus who enjoyed considerable power
and support of Indian population. It was the high priests who instigated both
Hindus and Muslims against the British at the time of revolt of 1857.
Q. Why did the
modern educated Indians did not support the revolt of 1857?
Ans One of main reason for the failure of the mighty revolt of 1857 was
the non-participation of masses. Many sections of the Indian population did not
provide their support to the Revolt. One such section was the modern educated
Indians. This class was repelled by the rebel's appeals to superstitions and
their opposition to progressive social measures. The Indian intellegensia wanted
to end the backwardness of their country by removing illiteracy and introducing
modern reforms. They mistakenly believed that the British rule would help them
accomplish these tasks of modernisation while the rebels, led by zamindars, old
rulers and chieftains and other feudal elements, would take the country
backward. The dreams of this educated class were shattered by late 19th century
when they learned from experience that foreign rule was incapable of modernising
the country and that it would instead impoverish it and keep it backward.
Q.5. What were
the causes of the sudden and quick collapse of Indian handicrafts industry under
the British? What were its consequences? (8 marks)
Ans. The Indian economy was based on handicraft industries and
agriculture before the Britishers came in India. Much of the production was
based on cottage and small-scale industries. The works of Indian goldsmiths,
blacksmiths, cotton weavers, silk weavers were in great demanding not only in
India but also abroad .The 18th century witnessed the emergence of industrial
revolution in Britain. The industrial revolution created the need for Indian raw
material but it ruined the handicraft industry as the British manufactured goods
now flooded Indian markets at much lower costs. This was done through the one-
way free trade strategy of British in 1813which allowed the invasion of British
manufactures in India, in particular cotton textiles .
The Indian goods made with primitive
technique s could not compete with goods produced on mass scale by powerful
steam -operated machines. The demand for the Indian handicraft was strategically
barred by imposing high tariff duties on Indian exports such as manufactured
silk and cotton cloth apparels The ruin of Indian Industries, particularly rural
handicrafts, proceeded more rapidly once the railways was built .The railways
enabled British manufactures to reach and uproot the traditional industries in
the remotest villages of the country at far more cheaper prices and attractive
colours .The cotton weaving and spinning industry were the worst hit. Silk and
woollen textiles fared no better and similar fate overtook the iron, pottery,
glass, paper, metal, guns, shipping, tanning and dyeing industries. The modern
industries, which were opened in India, were controlled and financed by the
Britishers to cater to their own needs. India lacked heavy industries such as
metallurgy, machine, fertiliser's etc. which made Indians import it from abroad.
The government did not give any economic support to the development of such
causes of stagnation and deterioration of Indian agriculture under the British.
What was its impact on the Indian population?
Ans. The British rule in India in 19th century witnessed a rapid
transformation of India’s economy into a colonial economy whose nature and
structure were determined by the needs of the imperial government. The
deindustrialization of Indian industries increased the dependence of our
population on agriculture with no alternative source of income in sight. The
excessive land revenue demands, growth of landlordism, introduction of new land
holding policies i.e., ryotwary and permanent settlements and growing
impoverishment of Indian peasantry without any government backing resulted in
stagnation of Indian Agriculture with extremely low yields per year. The overall
agricultural production fell by 14% between 1901-1931. The British replaced the
old landlords with new urban-based landlords who had no interest in the land.
Their main objective was to collect maximum amount of revenue unmindful of the
plight of the peasants.
The British government paid little
heed to the agricultural sector and it remained technologically stagnant with no
modern equipment or fertilizers. Traditional methods of irrigation further
resurrected the growth. The British Economic policy had an adverse effect on the
Indian population. British government by ruining the Indian industries increased
pressure on agriculture. The artisans and the craftsmen were now forced to
settle in villages, which increased the pressure. With increase in the number of
the peasants the small land holdings were further divided. The British, instead
of giving concessions to the peasants, added to their woes through their
policies. Under such policies the peasant was forced to pay taxes as well as
subjected to force labour apart from land revenue.
The Government realised land revenue
with severity. It went on increasing land revenue considerably but spent very
little on the improvement of agriculture. It auctioned the land of the peasant
who was unable to pay rent due to him. In order to escape such circumstances,
the peasant himself pawned or sold a part of his land to pay rent. The
illiterate was further burdened when he borrowed from the moneylenders on high
rate of interests. The poverty of the Indians due to economic degeneration found
its culmination in a series of famines, which ravaged all parts of India in the
second half of the 19th century. India's economic backwardness was man- made as
it had abundant natural resources with a capability of yielding a high degree of
prosperity to the people. But this British colony presented a paradox of poor
people living in a rich country under imperialism.
Q.6 Mention the
change in the attitude of the British towards the Indian Princely states after
1858.What were the reason for this change? (5 marks)
Ans. The revolt of 1857 was a symbol of a rebellion by the Indian
population against the suppression of the British rule .The princely states
played an important role in the rising of the revolt. The British were so
frightened with the revolt that the possibility of another uprising always
haunted them. They also realised the need to create buffer states, which could
aid and support British. They therefore tried to win the sympathy of the Indian
rulers. They were now assured that under no circumstances their states would be
taken away from them as opposed to Dalhousie's policy of "doctrine of
lapse". Hindu rulers were now allowed to adopt sons. Thus the 562 Indian
royal families now became loyal to the British Government. This fulfilled the
ambitions of the English, as they now were able to win the support of the local
rulers who had a considerable amount of Indian population under their control.
changes introduced by the British in the Indian Army after 1858. Why were these
Ans. The Indian sepoys played a dominant role in Revolt of 1857.The
British carefully reorganised the Indian army after 1857, mainly to prevent the
recurrence of another revolt. Several steps were taken to minimise the capacity
of Indian soldiers to revolt. The proportion of Europeans to Indians in the army
was raised and fixed at one to two in Bengal armies and two to five Madras and
Bombay armies. Moreover, the crucial branches of the army like the artillery
and, later in the 20th century, tanks and armoured corps were put exclusively
under British soldiers.
The Indians were now restricted to
join the officer corps. The British used the policy of Divide and rule in the
army by discriminating the soldiers on the basis of caste, region and religion.
Communal, caste, tribal and regional loyalties were encouraged among soldiers so
that the sentiment of nationalism would not grow among them. Efforts were also
made to keep the army separated from the life and thoughts of the civilian
populace by banning the purchase of newspapers, journals and the nationalist
publications. But, despite the efforts of the British to keep its soldiers as
mercenary forces one witness that it were these forces which played an important
role in the freedom struggle later.
Q.7. Mention the
main contributions of Syyed Ahmed Khan in the field of education. (2 marks)
Ans. In 19th century, Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan emerged as the most
outstanding reformer among the Muslim population. Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan
introduced several reforms for the promotion of Muslims. He interpreted this
holy text in the light of intellectualism and science. He inspired the Muslims
to become liberal and free from social evils. He gave top priority to western
education. In 1875, he founded Muhammedan Anglo - Oriental School at Aligarh
which, in 1920, expanded, to become the Aligarh Muslim University.
Q.8. What were
the main differences that divided the Congress after the Non -Co-operation
Movement? Describe the main activities in which the Congress leaders holding
different views were involved? (5 marks)
Ans. On 1 February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi started the civil disobedience
and the non-co-operation movement but the Chaura Chauri incident of violence
made Gandhi withdrew the movement. Thus, the wave of nationalism under Gandhi
started ebbing and it created differences between the Congress leaders such as
Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru and C.R.Das. These two leaders pleaded for Indians to
enter the legislative councils to obstruct the government plan of using these
councils for their own use. They were more revolutionised in their plan for
achieving independence. On the other hand, congress leaders such as Sardar
Vallabh Bhai Patel, Dr. Ansari and Rajendra Prasad continued to give their
support to Gandhi and opposed the council entry programme. They wanted to attain
self -governance without violence.
It was under these circumstances
that C.R. Das and Pundit Nehru created the Swarajya Party in December 1922 AD.
Q. When was the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association set up? Explain the
ideas that the leaders of this association advocated. Ans. The Hindustan
Socialist Association (HSRA) was formed in 1928 AD under the leadership of
Chandra Shekhar Azad. Initially it was known as the Hindustan Republican
Association which, was organised with an aim of organising an armed revolution
against the British .
The name was changed when its
revolutionary came under socialist ideas. These men gradually moved from
individual heroic actions and act of violence to change their agenda and
explained to people the need for a revolution by the masses. The members of the
HSRA included Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Lala Lajpatrai. Their ideas were more
akin to Marxism -Leninism .They wanted to overthrow the British rule in India
and establish Socialism and Democracy. They sought to inculcate feeling of
Nationalism and patriotism among masses.
Q.9. What were
the British objectives in partitioning of Bengal in 1905? What were its
consequences? (5 marks)
Ans. On 20th July 1905, Lord Curzon issued an order dividing the province
of Bengal into two parts. Eastern Bengal and Assam with the population of 31
million, and the rest of Bengal with the population of 54 million, of whom 18
million were Bengalis and 36 million Biharis and Oriyas. It was said that the
existing province of Bengal was too big to be efficiently administered by a
single provincial Government.
But the real motive of division of Bengal by the English was to stem the growing
tide of Nationalism in Bengal, considered at that time to be the nerve centre of
Indian Nationalism. The Indian people saw the partition as a challenge to Indian
Nationalism and not merely an administrative measure. They saw it as a
deliberate attempt to divide the Bengalis territorially and on religious
grounds. They organised the anti -partition movement on 7th August 1905. On that
day, a massive demonstration against the partition was organised. The day of
Partition was observed as a day of fasting and mourning by the Nationalists .The
agitation against the partition of Bengal in 1905 made a deep impact on the
Indian National Congress. Both the extremist as well as the moderates joined
together to oppose the partition. They now launched a swadeshi and the boycott
movement to oppose British.
When and with
what objective was the Ghadar Party established? Describe its activities during
the First World War.
Ans. The Ghadar party was organised by the Indian Nationalist
Revolutionaries living in the U.S.A and Canada in 1913 AD. It was chiefly
composed of immigrants, soldiers, and peasants of Punjab. But leadership to this
party was provided by educated Hindus and Muslims .Its prominent leaders were
Baba Gurmukh Singh, Bhai Parmanand, Kartar Singh Saraba etc It was from these
leaders from whom the revolutionary terrorism took inspiration as they were
ready to lay down their lives for the cause.
The party's objective was to support
the Indian national struggle of freedom from the British rule. For this, they
gave monetary support to the Indian revolutionaries. The party's ideology was
very secular. The members of the party were strong patriots. During the First
World War in 1914, the members of the Ghadar party sent arms and monetary
support to Indian revolutionaries. They even decided to launch an armed revolt
Q.10 What was
the objective of the Khilafat Movement? (2 marks)
Ans. The Khilafat movement was organised under the leadership of the Ali
brothers, Maulana Azad and Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani. It s main
objective was to oppose the British attempt to dismemberment of the Turkish
Empire and abolish the seat of caliph. The movement launched a nation wide
agitation against the injustice meted out to the Ottoman Empire.
Q. 11. When and
why did the congress decide to launch the civil -Disobedience movement? How was
the movement started? Describe the main methods of struggle, which were adopted.
Ans. The Civil Disobedience Movement marked the beginning of the new
movement in the struggle for freedom as it declares the Purna Swaraj as its aim.
The movement began with Gandhi breaking the salt law at Dandi, a small village
on the seacoast of Gujrat on March 12, 1930 AD. The Civil Disobedience Movement
was a high mark in India’s national struggle against the British rule. It
united the Indians against the atrocities of the Britishers. It was a symbol of
disobedience to the government orders. It also aroused political awakening among
the Indians and made them bold enough to face any challenge.
The Movement was followed with
strikes, processions and demonstrations. Boycott of foreign goods was launched
and the whole nation joined in non-payment of government taxes. Soon this
movement attained the shape of the greatest mass movement under the leadership
of Gandhi. Even women did not lag behind in their enthusiasm. They joined the
men in picketing the foreign wine and cloth shops The movement engulfed the
Indian subcontinent. Khan Abbul Gafar Khan, popularly known as ‘Frontier
Gandhi’ started Khudai Khitmadgar Movement.The movement also reached the
eastern part of India where the people of Manipur and Nagaland. More than 90,000
patriots who participated in the civil disobedience movement from various parts
of India were put in jails. Some of them faced life imprisonment and inhuman
treatment but these government atrocities, instead of weakening the movement,
strengthened it further
Q. Read the following statement
made by Rabindranath Tagore while renouncing his Knighthood and answer the
questions that follow: "The time has come when badges of honor make our
shame glaring in their incongruous context of humiliation and I for my part wish
to stand shorn of all special distinctions, by the side of my countrymen who,
for their so called insignificance, are liable to suffer degradation not fit for
(1)What was the
incident because of which Tagore renounced his knighthood?
Ans. 1 The incident was the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, which took place on
April 13, 1919. On this day, General Dyer ordered firing on a peaceful gathering
of demonstrators in Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. Rabindra Nath Tagore renounced
his knighthood after this incident as the suffering and helplessness of his
countrymen moved him.
(2)What were the
developments that led to the incident?
Ans. 2 The First World War ended in 1918 AD. It was followed by the Great
Depression. India was affected in a big way. Many people were rendered jobless
after the closing of Industries. Peasants and handicraft workers suffered
hardships and losses. The passage of Rowllatt Act in 1919 AD further created
resentment among people and Gandhi announced his plan for Satyagraha. Strikes
were organized throughout the nation. The Government retaliated by arresting Dr.
Satya Pal and Dr. Kitchlu in Amritsar. More than 20,000 people gathered at
Jallian wala Bagh to protest against the arrests when General Dyer, without any
prior warning, opened fire.
impact of this incident on the struggle for freedom. (8 marks)
Ans.3 The Jallianwala Bagh incident had a deep impact on people. They now
lost faith in peaceful processions and gatherings and took to extremist path to
get rid of the imperial rule. Many revolutionary groups were formed whose main
aim was 'do or die ' to free their country from the British. The Government too
let loose worst kind of repression. Martial Law was let loose in Punjab. Many
innocent people were arrested and tortured. Mahatama Gandhi was arrested along
with other leaders.
Soon after his release, he organized
the Non -Co-operation movement and gave full support to Ali Brothers for
Khilafat Movement. Many people left their Government jobs and surrendered their
medals and awards or honours bestowed upon them by the Government. RabindraNath
Tagore was one of them. In retrospect, one could say that Jullianwala Bagh
Massacre marred permanently, the relation between the Government and its Indian
subjects .It promoted nationalism as people belonging to different sections of
society were now united against British Government and the atrocities it
inflicted on Indian masses.
Q.13. What is
meant by 'western front' in the context of the First World War? (2 marks)
Ans. The western side of Europe where the First World War started in 1914
AD. Is commonly known as the 'western front' .The European forces of Germany,
Britain, England fought on this front. U.S.A later joined the Allies i.e.
Britain and France. These three powers waged continuous battles on Germany,
which finally led to her defeat. Some of the famous battles fought on western
front were the battle of Marne, Battle of Verdum, Battle of Somme, Battle of
Daggerbank and Battle of Jutland.
Q. 14 Why were
the conflicts in Europe in early years of the 20th century connected with the
dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire? Explain with examples. (5 marks)
Ans. Some of the tensions in Europe, which culminated into First World
War, were connected with the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. Till the early
19th century the entire Balkan Peninsula was a part of the Ottoman Empire.
Throughout the 19th century, there were wars between the Ottoman and Russian
Empires. Russian attempts to extend her control over the Ottomans were thwarted
by the other European nations such as Britain, Germany, Austria Hungry. By the
20th century the Ottoman rule over the Balkans had had all but ended. Serbia,
Bulgaria and Albania had emerged as independent states. However, the
dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire did not solve the problem of nationalities
in Europe. Serbia, now independent, emerged as the champion of the Slav people,
many of whom inhabited the Austria - Hungary Empire. She depended on Russian
support in her ambition to create Greater Serbia, which would include the
Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina that were under Austria -Hungary.
She started encouraging discontent in these states and organised conspiracies
against Austria -Hungary. This region soon became source of increasing tensions
in Europe and finally provided the incident, which led to the First World War.
What is meant by
'Second international'? Explain its attitude towards the danger of War in Europe
before 1914 AD.
Ans. The second international was formed in 1889 and a congress were held
in Paris, the French capital city. Its aim was to unite the socialist parties of
the world. Though its main aim was propagation of socialism, but it also worked
towards retaining peace and international brotherhood in the world. It tried to
destroy capitalism and carry a struggle against militarism and wars. It was
against Imperialism. Some of its leaders wanted to bring a socialist revolution
in the World while others wanted to transform the world without the revolution.
It was decided to educate the colonial people and give support to the rising
nationalism in the Colonies. Peace and Human brotherhood were the two most
important ideals of the second international. It had an agenda for the workers
of the world to unite against the race of armaments. It adopted a resolution of
militarism and international conflicts.
Q. 15. Do you
agree with the view that the treaty of Versailles sowed seeds of the Second
World War? Give reasons in support of your answer. (5 marks)
Ans. The First World War came to an end in November 1918 AD Soon after, a
peace conference was held in Paris to decide the terms of the treaty after the
war. The peace treaty which Germany was forced to sign with the victorious
powers is commonly known as the treaty of Versailles. It was signed at the
palace of Versailles on June 28, 1919 AD. It was the treaty of Versailles, which
sowed seeds of the Second World War. The treaty of Versailles made Germany
guilty of the war. She was compelled to cede her territory of Poland, Denmark,
and Belgium etc. to the victorious powers. A new state of Poland was carved out
of German territory. Denzing was made a free city. Germany was further debarred
from joining with Austria. The victorious French took the German territory of
Alsace and Loraine. It also got the right to exploit the rich coal mines of Saar,
which came under German influence. Most of German colonies in Africa such as,
Togoland, Congo, Cameroons were redistributed among British and the French. The
military strength of Germany was reduced. Last, but not the lease, Germany was
made to accept the war guilt and had to pay heavy sum of 6,600million dollars as
war indemnity to the allies. The provisions of the treaty were, obviously very
harsh. The Germans were insulted and retaliated by emerging a major fascist
power under the leadership of Hitler who led the world to the Second World War.
Q. Describe the
economic policies followed by the Russian Government immediately after the
success of the Bolshevik Revolution, Why were these policies given up in 1921?
Ans. The Russian revolution of 1917 was an important event in the World
history. It marked the end of the autocratic rule of Czar Nicholas of Russia and
the beginning of democracy and socialism. The power now passed in the hands of
the people and the dictatorship of the proletariat or working class was set up
under the leadership of Lenin. The Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic, under
the rule of the Bolsheviks, introduced many economic reforms. The individual
ownership over the means of production was now abolished and the motive of
personal profits was eliminated from the system of production. The right to work
was now made a constitutional right and the state took active measure to provide
employment under its five-year plan over capital was discouraged. All means of
economy were made available for the development of the nation with an aim of
attaining social equality .In the rural sector, land was forcibly taken away
from the landlords and redistributed among farmers. All the debts of the farmers
were remitted. In the long run these economic policies proved fatal, especially
after Lenin's death. As a result, the process of the economic policies was
reversed due to rampant corruption and inadequacy to run the economic plan
smoothly. Due to this reason many of the economic policies were abandoned.
Q. 16. In
February 1933, the Reichstag building was set up on fire. How was this system
made use of by Hitler? (2 marks)
Ans. On 30th February, Adolph Hitler was appointed the Chancellor of
Germany. After coming to power he set about to consolidate his ruler in Germany
but he lacked the support of the masses to win the elections and become a part
of the reichstag or the German parliament. Five days before the elections, which
were to be held on March 5, 1933, Hitler set the reichstag on fire. This was
done to create a reign of terror among the people and to intimidate them in
voting Hitler in the elections.
Q.17. How was
Czechoslovakia affected after the signing of the Munich pact? (2 marks)
Ans. The independent state of Czechoslovakia, which was created after the
First World War, was dismembered with the signing of the Munich Pact on
September 29, 1938. The German claim over Sudenteland, a part of the Czech
territory, was accepted. The Czech lost their independence as England, France,
Italy, and Germany jointly took responsibility of security of Czechoslovakia.
Q.18. Why is the
battle of Stalingrad considered important in the history of the Second World
War? Explain. (5 marks)
Ans. the battle of Stalingrad was fought between Russia and Germany on
Russian territory. It is an important battle in the history of the Second World
War as it marked the defeat of Germany as well as the defeat of Hitler and his
Nazi party. The events, which led to the battle of Stalingrad, are as follows.
Hitler had signed a non- aggression treaty with Russia in August 1939 AD. But,
he had no faith in Russia and considered her as a vital threat to Nazi Germany.
He also had Imperial designs on the
fertile Ukraine basin and its mines. He also wanted to Europeanize the area of
the Asian steppe .For these reasons he violated the pact of 1939 and attacked
Russia from three sides. A fierce battle was fought in Stalingrad, near Moscow
but the Germans failed to capture Stalingrad as the German soldiers were taken
unawares by the heavy rains and frosts in the month of October for which the
German army was unprepared. Hitler's campaign failed miserably. Out of 3,30,00
soldiers only 12,000 survived. It was the first mistake, which changed the fate
of Germany as well as Hitler. It led to German defeat and eventually, the end of
the Second World War.
Q. When did the
USA enter the Second World War? Make an assessment of her role in influencing
the outcome of the War.
Ans. The Second World War began in 1939. In the beginning US remained
neutral to the war which was restricted to Europe. It allowed Britain to buy
arms on cash basis. Germany attacked Russian June 1941. . The French and the
British were drawn into the war as they supported Russians. President Roosevelt
signed the Atlantic Charter with British Prime Minister Churchill to declare the
war aim and to destroy Nazi Germany. Russia also became a party to the charter.
On December 1941, Japan, which was Germany's ally, attacked the US naval base at
Pearl Harbor. It led to the destruction of many US aircraft's, battleships,
armours and naval bases. US had no option but to retaliate. It declared War on
Japan on December 8, 1941. Germany and Italy joined Japanese forces. US declared
war with Germany and Italy. Thus the US entry in the war made it a global war.
US made 3,00,000 aircraft's and 85,000 tankers. It was now called as the
'arsenal of victory'.
the major European developments between 1945 and 1949, which created tensions
between USA and the Soviet Union and led to the Cold War? (8 marks)
Ans. The Second World War ended in 1945 AD. During the war period, The
USA and USSR forgot their ideological differences and came together to restore
peace in the World.But toward the end of the War, the harmony that existed
between Russia and USA ended, their ideological differences came to the
forefront which guided them towards the Cold War. Russia, being a socialist
country, tried to spread the idea of socialism and democracy throughout the
World. It asked for the workers of the world to unite together and created
strong Workers union throughout the World. Russia tried to spread her influence
by spreading communism in different parts of the World especially in Eastern
Communist regimes were set up in
Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia etc. It aroused fear and
threat in Britain, France and USA. These socialist ideas were seen as a threat
by the USA as being a capitalist country herself, her economy largely depended
on Monopoly capitalism, where a few Capitalist thrived on the labor of the
working class. The USSR call for the workers to unite was seen as a threat to
USA's economy, polity and society. Relations between the Soviet Union and the
USA became difficult as they stood forth as rivals though no actual armed
conflict took place directly between the two opposing camps. This post war fear,
tension, suspicion, and hostility between the two nations has been termed as the
cold war. The world was divided into two power blocs, the Russian Bloc and the
American Bloc. In order to reduce the Russian influence, America organized NATO
with the help of the European countries.
To counteract it, Russia laid the
foundation of the Warsaw pact with the help of the eastern countries. The race
of armaments started in a big way where each country tried to outdo the other in
creating atomic and nuclear power. After the Second World War the capitalist
countries tried to interfere in the politics of other small countries to check
the growth of communism. They began to crush the national movements of India and
China. USA interfered in the Vietnam crisis by sending its troops to fight the
Vietnam's rising tide of communism. US also interfered in the Arab politics by
supporting Israel's Imperialist designs over Palestine. It were these tensions
which threatened the world peace between 1945 to 1949 AD.
Q. When and why
did USA send its troops to fight a war in Vietnam? Explain the factor that
brought the war in Vietnam to an end.
Ans. Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia comprises Indo -China which was a French
colony till 1940 AD. When Germany overran France in 1940 Vietnam was transferred
under the control of Japan. During this time the Vietnamese organized a people's
army called the Viet Minh under the leadership of Ho-Chi-Minh. to resist the
Japanese occupation. By the end of the Second World War, the Vietnamese had
liberated a large part of their country form Japanese occupation. In August 1945
AD , the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed under the leadership of
Ho-Chi- Minh .
This Democratic Republic operated
under the influence of the USSR. Which supported the Vietnamese Nationalism.
Soon the allies i.e. The British and the English send its troops in Vietnam to
support and sponsor a nominally independent ruler, Bau Dai , the emperor of Anam.
The Soviet Union recognized Ho-Chi- Minh 's regime while the Capitalist allies
along with USA as their leader supported Bau Dai.By the Geneva conference,
Vietnam was divided into North and South .North was ruled by Ho-Chih -Minh under
Russian support and South was ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem under the influence of USA.
It was also decided in the conference that elections would be held in within two
years to decide the fate of Vietnam.
The Government of South Vietnam
refused to hold elections under full support of USA who, under no circumstances
wanted to unite Vietnam as its unity guaranteed the threat of communism
Consequently, in 1960, there broke out an uprising against the government of
South Vietnam. The USA suppressed this uprising by sending thousands of its
troops to Vietnam. The American troops carried the suppression to North Vietnam
and caused incalculable damage to the Vietnamese and suffered heavy causalities
themselves. This mindless war lasted for about eighteen years. By the end of
1975, Americans lost 54,000 soldiers. USA was condemned for its undue
interference. Under heavy pressure USA was forced to call back its troops to
restore peace in Vietnam. Atlas , in 1975 AD, the American troops left South
Vietnam for good.
Q.20. What is
the theme of Pablo Picasso's painting 'Guernica'?
Ans Picasso, a Spaniard, contributed much to the modern art movement and
left a rich legacy of his work after his death. His painting 'Guernica' is named
after a town in Spain. This is a life-size painting on the atrocities committed
by the Nazis and the Fascist against the Republicans during the Spanish Civil
Q.21 Mention the
names of any two writers of South Africa during the period of apartheid. (2
Ans. Among the South Indian writers, who wrote during the period of
apartheid, two names are particularly renowned, the poet Denis Brutus and the
Novelist Alex la Guma. Both of them, through their literary talents depict the
horrors of tortures inflicted on African people under racism, by the Americans.
Q. When and who
became the president of Africa when the rule of the white minority was ended?
Ans Nelson Mandela became the President of South Africa when the rule of
the White minority came to an end in the year 1944.
Q. 22. Mention
any one major scientific discovery of the 20TH century, which led to dangerous
consequences for the human kind.
Ans. The discovery of atomic bomb was one major scientific discovery, which led
to dangerous consequences for the human kind in the 20th century. It became a
major threat to world peace.