(Paper) History Sample Paper Class XII - 2000 (Solved)

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History Class- XII 
Sample Paper- Year 2000


Q1. Explain any one significant feature of the Regulating Act of 1773.
The Regulating Act introduced by the British Government in 1773 was the first act, which broke the monopoly of East India Company’s administrative control over India. This Act made changes in the constitution of the Court of Directors of the Company and subjected their actions to the supervision of the British Government.

Q2. Explain the nature of Tipu sultan’s relations with Britain. What, in your view, were the main reasons of his defeat?
The most important power that emerged in South India in 18th century was Mysore under Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. Sultan Tipu ,(1782-1799A.D.) was a staunch enemy of British like his father. .He was a lover of freedom. Having rejected subsidiary alliance with the Britishers, in preference to lead a life of subordination, sacrificed his life while fighting the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1799 in Serigapatam.
As a statesman, Sultan, more than any other 18th century Indian ruler, recognized to the full extent the threat that the English posed to South India as well as to other Indian powers. With an objective of seeking help, Tipu sent his ambassadors to France, Turkey, Iran and Arab states. He organized his army on European style. He also made an effort to build a modern navy.
Though, Tipu sultan was recklessly brave and, as a commander, brilliant. He was, however, hasty in action and unstable in nature. He also lacked political foresight, which became the main cause of his defeat. According to Col.Wilkes, "In the estimation of character, Haider Ali rarely made error while Tipu was rarely right."Instead of seeking help from the neighboring Indian states of Marathas and Nizams, he made efforts to seek help from distant countries of France, Turkey, and Iran. . As a general also his war strategies were weak. In preference to cavalry, he paid much attention towards infantry and fortification. Hence, the pace of his army was slow and his war strategy instead of becoming aggressive became defensive.


Q Why did the Portuguese fail to expand in India? Explain.
. In 1498, Vasco Da Gama of Portugal discovered a new sea route from Europe to India, which was to witness a new era in European trade relations with India. Under the viceroyalty of Alfonso d’ Albuquerque, who captured Goa in 1510A.D. , The Portuguese were the first to establish their domination over the entire Asian coast.

Inspite of their barbaric behavior, which included piracy, raids and mindless conversions of Indians to christianity, the Portuguese survived in India for a century because they enjoyed control over the high seas but in the latter half of the 16th century, Portuguese lost their trading monopoly to the English, Dutch and the French .The new European powers, with well equipped army and strong government support were easily able to evacuate small trading posts established by the Portuguese.

The incompetent successors of Albuquerque failed to preserve Portuguese empire in India.The raids and piracies conducted by them made them unpopular with Indian rulers who preferred the sophisticated and diplomatic behavior of the British and the French.
The discovery of Brazil diverted many Portuguese to this new trading venture with very few traders maintaining trade relations with India.

Q3. What were the changes in the social and cultural policy of the British Government in India after 1813? What were the reasons for these changes? What were the differences between Radical Englishmen and British Government on the issue?
Till 1813 the British Government in India followed the policy of non- –interference in Indian religious, social and cultural practices. Post 1813 period witnessed the introduction of new reforms and acts, which were largely, introduced keeping British interests in mind. The new changes included abolition of custom of Sati, banning child sacrifice, permitting widow remarriage, abolition of girl infanticide and abolition of slavery.
The intellectual interests were the mains driving force behind these reforms. The French and the Russian revolution, which gave birth to a "new thought" movement, followed the industrial revolution in Europe. The three outstanding features of this new thought were: -

1.Rationalism or faith in reason or science
2.Humanism or love for mankind
3. Confidence in the capacity of a man to progress.
This new outlook gave birth to Socialism and Liberalism. 19th century saw the rising conflict between the conservatives and the Radicals. The conservatives,headed by the British Government officials like Warren Hastings and Edmond Burke favored social stability above all and were against any radical reforms. The Radicals, on the other hand, wanted to make India a part of the modern progressive world and applied advanced humanistic and rational approach to Indian society and thought. The doctrine of Humanism led them to desire the improvement of Indian people.


Q. what was meant by the ‘Downward Filtration Theory’? Explain how it was reflected in Wood’s Dispatch.Mention any two main outcome of Wood’s Dispatch.
Ans. For the first sixty years of its dominion in India, the British took little interest in education of its subjects but, gradually, with the expansion of British empire in India, a need was felt for creation of clerical and lower administrative posts which could be occupied by the Indians to fulfill British interests. The mode of education thus adopted was called as "The Downwrd Filtration Theory" according to which, the British proposed to grant western education to a handful of Indians , who , on their part, were expected to impart it to others- a process through which ideas could be filtered downwards.
This Theory was reflected in Wood’s Dispatch (1854) undertaken by Charles Wood. The dispatch proposed expansion of education by establishment of government schools and colleges on western pattern. , With English as the medium of studies.
Though Wood’s Dispatch was a highmark in education of Indians, it left much to be desired. The stress on higher education by the British left elementary education unattended. Thus higher education became a monopoly of the rich who could afford it. Emphasis on English as the medium of instruction stopped many conservatives to join schools.

Q.4. Mention the immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857.
. The episode of the greased cartridges was the immediate cause of the revolt. The new Enfield rifle which was introduced in the Indian army used greased cartridges .The grease was in some cases composed of beef and pig fat which enraged the religious sentiments of both Hindu and the Muslim sepoys who organized a mutiny against the British. This occasion provided the general populace of India to revolt.

Q.5. Explain the contribution of the Theosophist Movement to the strengthening of Indian Nationalism.
Ans. Madam Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott founded the theosophical society in Unites States in 1875. They later came to India and founded the headquarters of the society in Madras in 1886.The Indian side of the movement was led by Mrs. Annie Beasent who advocated the revival of Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism.
The Theosophist or the "Home Rule Movement" helped in the growth of Indian Nationalism, as it was to remove the distinction of caste, color and religion and to promote universal brotherhood. It laid stress upon the study of Ancient texts of Hindus and acquainted them with the glorious era of Indian past, which revoked self-confidence among Indians.The Home rule, or the slogan of "Swaraj" was later raised by BAL Gangadhar Tilak to strengthen Indian National Movement.


Q.Explain the contribution of Arya Samaj to the social reform movement of India.
Ans. Swami Dayanad Saraswati founded the Arya Samaj in 1875 in Bombay. It later spread in form of a reform movement with various branches all over India.The Arya Samajis undertook several socio-religious reforms to uplift Indian society.

The members of the Samaj opposed caste system, untouchability and distinction between high and low. They stressed on purity of one’s character and were opposed to addictions such as smoking and alcohol.Both vedic and western sciences were encouraged and for this purpose various schools and colleges were opened throughout India .
Various reforms were introduced for upliftment of women.The Arya samajis opposed the custom of sati, child remarriage, polygamy,girl infanticide and the purdah system. Elementary education for women was encouraged and widow houses were opened throughout India.

Q 6.
Critically examine the impact of British rule on Indian agriculture.
The British rule in India in 19th century witnessed a rapid transformation of India’s economy into a colonial economy whose nature and structure were determined by the needs of the imperial government.The deindustrialization of Indian industries increased the dependence of our population on agriculture with no alternative source of income in sight.The excessive land revenue demands, growth of landlordism , introduction of new land holding policies ie, ryotwary and permanent settlements and growing impoverishment of Indian peasentry without any government backing resulted in stagnation of Indian Agriculture with extremely low yields per year. The overall agricultural production fell by 14% between 1901-1931.
The growth of "absentee landlordism" who replaced the old zamindars hindered the agricultural growth as this new parasitical class was more interested in rents than in improvement of agriculture. The British government paid little heed to the agricultural sector and it remained technologically stagnant with no modern equipment or fertilizers. Traditional methods of irrigation further resurrected the growth.


Q.Discuss the development of plantation industries in India in late 19th century. Who were the main beneficiaries of these industries?
Ans. The 19th century India witnessed the growth of plantation industries such as indigo, tea and coffee. The Europeans almost exclusively owned these industries and thus they were hardly of any use to the Indian farmers. They only added to their further suppression and degeneration.
Indigo, which was grown in Bihar and Bengal gained notoriety for oppression of Indian peasantry who were compelled to grow Indigo on no profit basis. The tea industry, being foreign owned , was helped by the government with grants but the profits went to the government.
The staff employed in these industries largely consisted of foreign nationals and most of the product was to cater to the needs of European markets. The foreign exchange so earned was used by the Britishers.The only advantage that the Indians got out of these industries was creation of unskilled jobs. Most of the Indians were extremely low paid, working in harsh conditions. The treatment meted out to them was that of a slave.

Q.7. Discuss the developments, which led to the murder of the British Resident in Afghanistan in 1879. Critically evaluate the significance of the event for the British policy towards Afghanistan.
Ans. The British pursued two policies in its relation with Afghanistan. The active interference policy in the independence loving Afghanistan was used till 1879. But the murder of Major Cavagnari and his military escort on 3rd September 1879 by Afghanis made the British reverse their interference policy to that of non –interference in Afghanistan’s internal affairs.
Britishers wanted to externally control Afghanistan by internally weakening it as it was placed in a crucial geographical situation from British point of view. It could act as a buffer state to protect India from the Russians as well as serve commercial interests of Britishers For this reason, Britishers followed active interference policy by which they replaced Dost Mohammed, an independent ruled, with Shah Shuja , a puppet ruler of British in 1841 which was followed by afghani revolt. Again, In1878, Britishers launched an attack on Afghanistan. Though they won in this second battle, their success was short-lived. To protect their independence, the Afghans killed the British resident in 1879, which made the Britishers to reverse their policy of interference to that of non- interference. Peace finally came in 1921, when, by a treaty, Afghanistan finally restored its independence from Britain.

Q.8. Explain the Early Nationalist’s response to Constitutional Reforms initiated by the Government.
Ans. The Moderates led the Indian National Movement, in its initial stages. They were impressed by the western thought and had faith in the British sense of justice. They wanted to bring reforms in political and administrative spheres gradually through constitutional methods. They demanded expansion and reform of legislative assemblies. So the government was forced to pass the Indian council Act of 1892, according to which, the number of members of legislative assemblies were increased. A few of these members were to be elected by the Indians.
But this act did not satisfy the Indians because, in the legislative assemblies, the majority of government officials were British and no substantial power was passed in the hands of the Indians who now demanded control of Indians over the public purse and larger share for Indians in the administrative council.

Q.9 What did the nationalist mean by ‘Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’?
Swadeshi and boycott were introduced by Nationalists to induce positive action when they realized that the public meetings and demonstrations were not having any effect on the Britishers. The answer was seen in the form of swadeshi and boycott.

Swadeshi was the use of Indian goods and boycott the British goods. Public burning of foreign goods were organized, shops selling the foreign goods were picketed. Swadeshi and Boycott paid emphases on self-reliance to boost Indian self-confidence and honor.

Q.10 Read the following statement and answer the questions, which follow:
The British rule in India has brought about moral, material cultural and spiritual ruination of this great country. I regard this rule as a curse. I am out to destroy this system of government".

  1. In which context and by whom was the statement quoted above made? (2marks)

  2. This statement marked the beginning of a new movement in the struggle for freedom. What is this movement known as and how did it begin. (2marks)

  3. Critically examine the place of this movement in the struggle for freedom. (4marks)

Ans. (a) This statement was made in the context of Civil Disobedience Movement and was made by Mahatma Gandhi.
(b) The Civil Disobedience Movement marked the beginning of the new movement in the struggle for freedom as it declares the Purna Swaraj as its aim. The movement began with Gandhiji breaking the salt law at Dandi, a small village on the seacoast of Gujarat in 1930.
(c)The Civil Disobedience Movement was a high mark in India’s national struggle against the British rule. It united the Indians against the atrocities of the Britishers. It was a symbol of disobedience to the government orders. It also aroused political awakening among the Indians and made them bold enough to face any challenge. The Movement was followed with strikes ,processions and demonstrations. Boycott of foreign goods was launched and the whole nation joined in non-payment of government taxes.
The movement engulfed the Indian subcontinent. Khan Abbul Gafar Khan , popularly known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’ started Khudai Khitmadgar Movement.The movement also reached the eastern part of India where the people of Manipur and Nagaland. More than 90,000 patriots who participated in the civil disobedience movement from various parts of India were put in jails. Some of them faced life imprisonment and inhuman treatment but these government atrocities, instead of weakening the movement, strengthened it further.


Q.Discuss the major development that led to the launching of the ‘Quit India Movement’. Explain the significant features of the Movement and the British attitude towards it.
Ans The Quit India Movement was the last Gandhian movement of its kind, which saw Mahatma Gandhi moving away from his policy of non-violence for Indian freedom. Socialist and revolutionary forces were agitated with Gandhi and the masses were disillusioned with the failure of civil disobedience movement and nonviolent Satyagraha. . The Second World War witnessed the growth of communalism in India, which was mainly instigated by the British policy of ‘Divide and rule’. In March 1940A.D.the Pakistan resolution was passed at the Lahore session of the Muslim League which demanded a separate Muslim state comprising Muslim majority states and provinces in India. When Gandhi saw through the British mischief ‘divide and rule’ to instigate communalism and divide the Indians, he atonce launched the second civil disobedience movement in November 1940 AD The government retaliated by arresting all important leaders of freedom struggle including Pundit Jawahar lal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi.

The world events, on the other hand, were fast changing. Japan had become a major imperialist nation in the Second World War. In 1941 A.D Japan became the biggest threat to British colonies. It had occupied Singapore and was moving towards Indian frontiers. The British government under pressure released all the congress leaders from jail to secure their co –operation in war efforts .It also send Sir Stafford Cripps in 1942 to talk with the congress and the Muslims

Q11. Explain the growth of socialist forces in the congress in 1920’s. Describe the role of Jawaharlal Nehru in this regard. (8marks)
Ans. The year 1927 witnessed the emergence of the new trend of socialism in India. Marxist and socialist ideas filtered in India. The Russian Revolution had aroused interest among many young Indian nationalists. Many of them were dissatisfied with the Gandhian political ideas and program. They had little faith in non-violence and the objective, which it could achieve. These men now turned to socialist ideology for guidance. Politically, this force and energy found reflection in the rise of the New Left wing in the congress under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas chandra Bose . MN Roy became the first Indian to be elected to the leadership of the Communist International .The left wing did not confine itself to the struggle against imperialism. It simultaneously raised the question of internal class oppression by the capitalist and the landlords Indian youth became active under the influence of socialism. All over the country youth leagues were being formed and student conferences held. The first All Bengal Conference of Students was held in August 1928 and was presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru.The Indian youth gradually began to turn to socialism and to advocate radical solutions for social, political and economic ills of the country. The growth of socialist ideas had a great impact on the freedom struggle. Now side by side fighting for the freedom, emphasis also began to be laid on the economic upliftment of the masses, especially on the emancipation of the toiling peasants and workers. In the Karachi session of the congress, which was held in 1931 there were clear indications of socialism taking its roots in the manifesto. The election manifesto of 1936 promised security of tenure to tenants, wages to workers and also the right to form labor unions. In his presidential address to Lukhnow congress in 1936 Nehru opposed fascism and Nazism and described them as the two faces of decaying capitalism.The radical ideas of Jawahar lal Nehru had a good impact on Gandhiji. Thus socialism had a great impact on the congress and the freedom struggle. Economic emancipation along with political freedom became the chief aim of the freedom movement.


Explain the attitude of Congress towards the anti-imperialist movement outside India. (8 marks) Ans. The Congress attitude towards the anti-imperialist movement can be seen in its various programmes. Its members actively supported anti-imperialist struggle started by nations like Turkey, Africa, and Ethopia, Czechoslovakia. Pt.Jawaharlal Nehru was elected in the executive council of the League Against Imperialism .The Indian National congress fully supported the Muslim league when the Britishers partitioned Turkey. The congress and the Muslim league jointly organized the Khilafat and the Non co-operation Movement against the Britishers in 1922 . In 1927, the Madras session of the National Congress warned the Britishers that the people of India would not support Britain in any war undertaken to further its imperialistic aims. During Second World War, the congress took a firm stand against Imperialism in any part of the world and also supported the national struggle of Africa for its freedom. It also condemned Fascism, which had arisen at that time in Germany and Italy as the most extreme form of imperialism and racism. It gave full support to the people of Ethopia, Spain, Czechoslovakia and China in their fight against Imperialism. In 1937, when Japan attacked China, the national congress gave a call to boycott the use of Japanese goods in support of China.

Q.13. Explain any one major difference between Modern history and Contemporary history. (2marks)
Ans.The period of world history beginning from 15th century A.D till 17th century A.D.is generally regarded as Modern period. The term ‘contemporary’ history denotes the `the account of events taking place during the times of author’s writing'. A few historians regard the period from 1945 AD onwards as the beginning of Contemporary history.

Q.14 Mention any two developments, which signify the emergence of Japan as an imperialistic power during the Pre First World War period. Mention any two countries with which Japan came into conflict during this period. (5 marks)
The 19th Century witnessed the growth of Japan as an imperialistic power. Japan made much progress on all sides, especially in its industrial, military as well its imperialistic expansion. The Japanese progress in the 19th century can be attributed to the Meiji era (1867-1902). In 1868 the rule of the military generals or the shoguns ended and emperor Mitshito was restored his powers. This event is known as the Meiji restoration. Militarism, however, continued unabated. In fact, it became the main feature of the Meiji era. Universal military service was introduced to attract the warrior class of Japan into the army service. French and German instructors were inducted in the army to learn the modern methods. Special efforts were made to recognize military in Japan from 1867 to 1885 A.D. As a result, Japan became a power to reckon with. It became a warrior nation, with an eagerness to rule the world.

Japan needed raw materials for her industries so she invaded China. In 1894 AD China was defeated and was forced to give Liotung peninsula and Luchin islands to Japan. Japan also defeated Russia in 1904 AD to achieve its imperialistic aims. Korea was also recognized as a Japanese protectorate. The people of Japan now fully realized that the feeling of Nationalism and their military strength could enable them to compete with any power of the world. Thus by the end of World War I, Japan emerged as a great imperialistic nation, next to Britain and France.

Q.15. Explain the main features of Wilson’s 14 points. Critically examine the impact on the world after the end of the war. (5 marks)
The American president Woodrow Wilson, after the First World War, placed 14 points before the Allied nations, which were meant to restore peace and eliminate war. In these 14 points, the president proposed to:

Give up secret diplomacies and to have open alliances and treaties; reduction of armaments by all nations; Freedom in the use of seas by all nations both in war and in peace; remove barriers on international trade; establishment of League Of Nations for the guarantee of political independence and territorial integrity different states; re-arrangement of territories given up by Russia on the basis of self determination; freedom of Serbia and Romania and establishment of free state of Poland. The World War had great political, social, and economic impact on all nations of the world. The defeated countries like Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria suffered great territorial losses and had to pay a huge war indemnity. Their military strength was reduced considerably. Many new states like Poland, Yugoslavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania came into existence. The Asian and the African colonies of the defeated nations were taken away from them only to be redistributed among the victors.


Describe the main features of the peace treaty signed by the victorious powers with Germany. (5 marks)
Ans. The First World War came to an end in November 1918 AD. Soon after, a peace conference was held in Paris to decide the terms of the treaty after the war. The peace treaty which Germany was forced to sign with the victorious powers is commonly known as the Treaty of Versailles. It was signed at the Palace of Versailles on June 28, 1919 AD. The treaty of Versailles made Germany guilty of the war. She was compelled to cede her territory of Poland, Denmark, and Belgium etc. to the victorious powers. A new state of Poland was carved out of German territory. Denzing was made a free city. Germany was further debarred from joining with Austria. The victorious French took the German territory of Alsace and Loraine. It also got the right to exploit the rich coal mines of Saar which were under German influence. Most German colonies in Africa, such as, Togoland, Congo, the Cameroons were redistributed among the British and the French. The military strength of Germany was reduced. Lastly, Germany was made to accept the war guilt and had to pay heavy the sum of 6,600million dollars as war indemnity to the allies.

Q.16 What is meant by the Great Depression? (2marks)
Ans.The economic depression faced by the European countries after the First World War is popularly known as the Great Depression.The demand for goods fell sharply. The depression rendered the industrial workers jobless. The crisis persisted from 1929 till 1933. To escape from the consequences of the economic crisis, President Roosevelt introduced the New Deal, which planned to remove unemployment and encourage export-import.

Q.17  Mention the consequences of the First World War on the Ottoman Empire. (2marks)
Ans. The Treaty of Serves was signed with the Ottoman Empire in August 1920. The treaty led to the dismemberment of the Turkish Empire. Syria and Lebanon were taken by the French while England accquired Palestine and Iraq. Saudi Arabia was also made an independent state.The treaty of Serves could not be put into practice as a republic was established in the Ottoman empire under the leadership of Kamaal Pasha.

Q.18. Explain the term Phoney War in context of the Second World War. Describe the developments, which brought the phase of Phoney War to an end. (8 marks)
Though the Second World War broke out in September 1939 AD. But till April 1940 A.D. it was so slow and on such a small scale that it was called Phoney War. It was during this period that Germany, under its Imperialist and Fascist drive, invaded Poland, Denmark and Norway without any resistance from the Allied powers namely the British, French or United States .The League of Nations which was formed to protect the world from further threat and destruction of the war was unable to restrict Germany’s actions. The Treaty of Versailles that was forced upon Germany after the First World War was an unjust treaty favoring the Allies. Germany had to pay a huge price for being the looser. It was hit hard by the War indemnity. Many of her resource rich territories were snatched away from her. The Great Depression further added to German woes with the added burden of recession, taxes, and mass unemployment.

It was under these circumstances that Hitler came to power. He refused to abide with the harsh terms of Treaty of Versailles. He increased his military power and followed the policy of armament. His rule was a rule of dictatorship of the Nazi party with Hitler as its head. He began to expand the German Empire aggressively by conquering new territories as well as the ones Germany had lost in the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler first attacked Poland on September 1 1939; the Pols were defeated within 15 days. On the other hand, Russia attacked the eastern part of Poland. All this while, The British and the French were unable to stop German designs. Poland was now partitioned into two halves. Russia further conquered Finland, as it had no faith in the Germans. By 1940, the German offensive in the West became vigorous. Hitler conquered Norway, Denmark, Holland and Belgium. The allies and the League of Nations were unable to stop them. Holland surrendered on May10, 1940, followed by Belgium, who surrendered on may 24, 1940. The English army stationed there was able to escape with great difficulty through the port of Dunkirk . With this the ‘Phoney War’ came to an end as now the English were directly threatened.


Why did Germany invade Soviet Union? Explain its impact on the course of the Second World War.
Ans. After the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles, the people of Germany lost faith in the ruling Republican government as it failed to maintain prestige and honor of Germany. This led to the growth of dictatorship under the rule of Hitler and his Nazi party. He promised to restore the prestige of Germany.To fulfill its imperialistic designs, Germany, under the leadership of Hitler, attacked Soviet Union. Hitler had signed a non- -aggression pact with Russia in Aug 1939 A.D but he had no faith in Russia and still considered her Germany's biggest enemy. Also, Hitler wanted to capture the fertile Ukraine region and her mines and oilfields. Apart from imperial designs, Hitler wanted to exterminate the Jews and the slavs, which constituted most of the Russian population and make Eastern Europe a land of pure Aryan race. Hitler soon violated the non aggression pact of 1939 and attacked Russia.The Russians were not prepared and wanted to gain time under the cover of Soviet -German pact but it was totally taken aback by the attack. The German army captured Ukraine and moved towards Moscow.Soon it launched attacks on Leningrad and Moscow. A fierce battle was fought in Leningrad. The German army was unprepared for the heavy snow and frost of November month in Russia. The army suffered heavy losses and had to retreat. Hitler’s Russian campaign failed miserably. Soon after the allies joined in their attack on Germans. Hitler committed suicide. The fall of Italy and Japan followed. Finally, in 1945, the First World War came to an end.

Q.19 Discuss the developments that led to the emergence of two independent states in Germany after the Second World War and how was Germany reunited. (5 marks)
Germany was divided into separate parts in 1949. East Germany came under Russian dominance, which was called as German democratic republic with its capital at Berlin. West Germany came under the dominance of England, France and U.S.A. . It came to be known as the Federal Republic of Germany with its capital at Bonn.Both these newly created states followed its own pattern of social, economic and political life. This system continued for almost four decades. But such a division of German nation was a great source of tension for its nationals as well as the powers, which controlled these nationals. Infect, this division became a major factor for the cold war In 1961, the German democratic republic erected a wall between east and West Berlin to stop free movement of its residents. But in 1989, under the leadership of President Mikhail Gorbachev, the Berlin wall was opened. The decline of communism in Russia affected the German democratic republic too.In the 1990 elections the communist rule of German Democratic Party came to an end. Finally, in 1990 both the independent states of western and eastern Germany were united as one.


What is meant by the cold war? Do you think that the cold war has ended today? (5 marks)
Ans. A cold war is not a war in traditional sense of the term. It is a situation where no actual war takes place yet; a war like tension is maintained. Such a situation arose soon after the Second World War when the capitalist countries under the American influence and the communist countries under the Russian influence looked at each other’s action with suspicion. Though these countries did not fight in the battlefield, yet they carried propaganda against each other and followed such economic policies that were meant to harm others. The monopoly of the communist countries headed by Russia ended in 1991. This has led to relaxation of tension between the two groups. Also, the evil effects of the alarming growth of nuclear bombs as a safety measure has been stopped by anti war movements which took place after the Second World War. The doctrine of Nuclear Deterrence has also paved the way for peace in the world. Thus one could say that the threat of the cold war looming large in the world after the Second World War seems to have ended or atleast reduced considerably.

Q.20. Mention any two distinctive features of the Darwin’s theory of the “survival of the fittest”. (2 marks)
Ans. Charles Darwin’s theory of “survival of the fittest” propagated that, because of the biological differences, no two individuals can be similar to each other, and in the struggle for existence, only the fittest will survive.
Explain the meaning of “Fascism” (2marks)
Ans. Fascism stands for despotic rule where, all the powers of the state are vested in a single leader who is a despot. Mussolini established fascist rule in Italy after the First World War. (1922A.D) Hitler established a similar regime in Germany.

Q 21. Why is the Russian Revolution of 1917 known as theBolshevik Revolution? (2 marks)
Ans. Bolsheviks led the Russian revolution, a majority group of workers in Russia who, under the leadership of Lenin, believed in the revolutionary methods for bringing about changes in the Russian society and economy. Ultimately, it was the Bolsheviks who were able to bring about a successful revolution in Russia in 1917. Thus the 1917 revolution is also known as the Bolshevik revolution.

Q.22. Explain any one feature of “Abstract Art” (2marks)
Ans. In Abstract Art, the artist uses straight lines and curves. Abstract art has no definite form or shape. It stresses that artistic values are inherent in all colors, shapes and sizes.and not necessarily in any definite form.


Explain any one contribution of Ho Chi Minh. (2 marks)
Ans. Ho Chi Minh is regarded as the father of the republic of Vietnam. The Vietnam’s people’s army was organized under the leadership of Ho Chi Min. It was called as the ‘Vet Min’. It vigorously resisted the Japanese occupation of Vietnam. In 1945, the democratic republic of Vietnam was proclaimed and Ho Chin Min became its President.