(Paper) Political Science Sample Paper Class XII - 1997 (Solved)

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Political Science Class- XII 
Sample Paper- Year 1997 (Solved)

Q1. Define Law. (2 marks)
Ans. The word Law comes from the old teutonic route 'lag' which means to lay, to place, to set. So it is something laid down or set. However, it would be more appropriate to define law as a set of generally accepted rules and regulations governing inter-relationships in human society seeking to create order and balanced development of all laws may be natural or positive, national or international, constitutional or ordinary, civil or criminal and public or private.

Q2. What do you understand by justice? (2 marks)
Ans. The word 'Justice' comes from the Latin word 'Jus' which means 'bondage' or 'to bind'. Justice lies in the satisfaction of basic needs of the people of society. It means to treat all citizens on an impartial ground. Legal justice deals with principles and procedures as laid down by the system of law prevailing in a state. Moral justice, on the other hand, deals with what is right and what is wrong. Though justice is for the general order of the society as a whole, it also protects the individual. Social justice seeks to reform society in accordance with current idea of what is right or fair eg. land reforms, prevention of discrimination and equitable distribution of national resources and wealth.

Q3. What do you mean by 'dictatorship of the proletariat'? (2 marks)
Ans. The transitional period after the occurance of the proletarian revolutional is called the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. The power will be captured by the workers. The proletarian dictatorship will monopolise state power and shall use it as an instrument for consolidating its political victory and for the establishment of social order by redistribution the assets of capitalist and landlords and placing the means of production into the hand of the community. The basis of economy would be from each according to his work. The next stage will be the establishment of a classless society called communism.

Q4. What is a Welfare State? (2 marks)
Ans. Welfare state is that state which works for the happiness and prosperity of the people so that each individual can develop his personality. It means that the state must take upon itself the social responsibility of providing goods and services to weaker sections in society. The aim of the welfare state is preventive. It seeks to alter the very conditions which lead to unemployment, sickness or poverty. Thus a welfare state is expected to look after public
health, provide education, ensure right to work, right to shelter and unemployment benefits to all its citizens.

Q5. Mention any two Gandhian Directive Principles. (2 marks)
Ans. Gandhian Directive Principles of State Policy include:-

(a) Article 46 wants the state to promote the lot of SCs & STs. Their educational and economic interest are to be protected. Their exploitation should be stopped.

(b) Article 47 wants to secure the improvement of public health by prohibiting consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs.

(c) Article 40 is directed towards the regeneration of village panchayat.

(d) Article 39 observes that the state shall direct its policy towards securing equal pay for equal work for both men & women.

Q6. State any two duties performed by a citizen. (2 marks)
Ans. The fundamental duties were incorporated in the Indian constitution for the purpose of making the citizens patriotic and help them to follow a code of conduct that would strengthen the nation. A few of them may be mentioned here:-
1. To abide by and respect the Constitution, the National Flag, and the National Anthem.
2. Defend the country and render national service when required.

Q7. What do you mean by proportional representation. (2 marks)
Ans. Proportional representation is a system of representation the main focus of which is to ensure that the number of seats a political party gets in the legislature should be proportionate to the popular votes it obtains from the electorate in any given election. There are two methods by which proportional representation can be achieved : the single transferable vote system, also called the Hare System and the list system.

Q8. Write any two functions of the Election Commission. (2 marks)
Ans. The main functions of the Election Commission include:-
(i) To prepare, revise, update and maintain the list of voters for election to the Parliament, State Legislatures, Local bodies and to the office of the President and the Vice-president of India.

(ii)To conduct and supervise elections and bye-election to the Parliament, state Legislatures, and to the Office of the President and the Vice-President of India.

(iii)To delimit constituencies for the election to the Parliament and to the State legislatures, and to allot a number of seats to each of them.

(iv) To fix the election proramme, including dates for nomination and scrunity of candidates, and date of elections; make arrangements for setting up necessary number of polling booths, lay down procedure for the exercise of secret ballot, appoint adequate number of returning officers, and declare results after the proper counting and scrutiny of votes.

Q9. Give any two sources of income of the Panchayat Samiti. (2 marks)
Ans. There are two main sources of income of the Panchayat Samitis - grants in aid given by the state government for development activities, and taxation accruing from part of the land revenue.

Q10. What do you understand by 'planning'? (2 marks)
Ans. In the new economic environment, economic planning continues to be an important factor determining the strategies for public investment, besides providing guidelines for channelisiing private sector investment in desired directions. They have to act as "mutually complementary forces" in ensuring rapid economic develoment of the nation. In certain key areas including energy, human resource development, backward areas development, management of balance of payments etc. a holistic approach to policy formulation is needed.

Another important area of concern for the planning commission would be that of effecting maximum possible utilization of the plan allocation, rather than aiming at increase in the allocations. The key to efficient utilization of resources lies in the creation of "appropriate self-managed organizations" at all levels.

The Commission will have to play a more integrative role in the development of a wholitic approach to policy formulation in the crucial areas of human and economic development. Areas such as rural health, drinking water, rural energy, literacy and environmental protection will have to gain primacy in the priority outline of the Commission.

In the new era of economic restructuring, the Planning Commission should concentrate on strategies of employment generation, anti-poverty programmes, social development and ensuring balance within the infrastructure.

Q11. Mention the relation between liberty and equality. (4 marks)
Ans. Historically speaking the glorification of Liberty precedes that of equality. Be it the ancient Greek & Roman ideals of liberty of Locke's Natural rights, the concept of equality was not to be found. It was during the American & the French revolutions in 1776 & 1789 respectively that the idea of equality got itself aligned to liberty. However, Scholars like Lord Acton and Tocqueville still insisted that equality destroyed the possibility of having liberty. According to them Liberty means absense of any restrain or coersion whereas equality
needs some restrain or levelling which is against the principles of Liberty.

But such a concept of liberty is based on misunderstanding of the term. Liberty does not mean mere absense of restrain . It means to be autonomous and self - determining. It implies that whatever autonomy I have will not prevent others from equal autonomy. It implies that we are all equally entitled to realise our capacities. Equality is the condition in which this takes place to the maximum . For example
(i) Political equality is best gauranteed in a democracy in which each citizen is to count for one.

(ii) Civil equality or equality before law is the precondition of freedom. Laws should equally guarantee security of person & property because it is only then that we can have conditions necessary for enjoyment of our autonomy.

(iii)As far as economic equality is concerned, it has been seen that all laws and taxes dimnish one's Liberty but sometimes they do so to increase the general Liberty.

Thus relating to development of human personality, it is required that the ideals of Equality & Liberty should have a simultaneous flow.

Q12. State any four developmental activities of the state. (4 marks)
Ans. In the twenty-first century, almost all the nations are engaged in developmental activities in order to make their countries prosper. Barring the aim of development of nation state, mass participation and need for equality have also led the governments to undertake regulation of economic activity and undertake welfare programmes. A few developmental activities of the state are mentioned below:-

(1) The states government have entered into areas earlier reserved for private enterprises eg. Post Office and the Railways, to make them more efficient and consumer friendly.

(2) The state is also engaged in harnessing river through such activities as construction of dams and power houses. It also seeks to manage atomic energy for peace as well as for war. Most of the atomic energy commissions are set up and controlled directly by the states.

(3) The state sets up enterprises in public sector or joint sector for providing support to other industries or curb the growth of monopoly.

(4) The state raises money through taxes to support and promote economic growth. By graduated income tax it levels income. By tariff it influences foreign trade. Whenever money is required for development, the state also receives financial assistance from countries.

Q13. Write any four Directive Principles of State Policy that have been implemented.
Ans. The governments of the union and states have made impressive effects to translate many of the directives into practice.

(1) Article 40 - Introductin of Panchayati Raj Institutions.
The village Panchayats have become a reality and a further impetus in this field has been provided by the 73td Amendment Act, 1992, which has provided for a three- tier panchayati raj structure with all the posts to be filled by direct elections on the basis of adult franchise. Moreover, there is a provision of reservation for SC, ST and women.

(2) Article 47 - Prohibition of intoxicating Drinks and Drugs. In some states like Haryana, some effort has been there in this direction.

(3) Article 50 - Seperation of Executive from Judiciary. It is the most important requisite for the promotion of liberty in a democratic set up. The criminal procedure court has vested the function of judicial trial in the hands of judicial magistrate. The members of the judiciary are under the complete control of the high court, thus separation of Executive from Judiciary is implemented in our country in most of the states.

(4) Article 53(A), 51(B), 51(C) & 51(D) - Promotion of International Peace. These principles are embodied in the foreign policy of India based on Panchsheel and dynamic neutrality. Moreover, India supports the UN in its various peace keeping missins and other activities.

Q14. Define rights. Mention any two political rights. (4 marks)
Ans. Rights are those claims which are recognised by the society, enforced by the state and aim at general good. They provide exernal conditions necessary for the development of individual personality. Thus as Hobhouse puts it, rights are, "what we may expect from others and others from us, and all genuine rights are conditions of social welfare." However, rights are not absolute in nature. Rights have to be limited by the social control in order to be effectively possessed.

Political rights consists in:-
(1) Right to vote and get elected :- By right to vote we mean that every adult citizen has the right to express his opinion by casting a vote at the time of elections what persons he desires should undertake the task of government. The right to vote and the right to be elected as a representative are twin-born and essential for a democratic government.

(2) Right to public office :- The Constitution of India provides equality of opportunity to all citizens in matters of employment under the state. No citizen shall, on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex ineligible for any office under the state. This is the gift of democracy which gives equal right to all citizens.

Q15. What do you mean by adult franchise? Mention any two qualifications of a voter. (4 marks)
Ans. Adult franchise means that all the adult members of the society above a specified age irrespective of caste, colour, creed are eligible to select their representatives to run the country. It is thus recognised as the basis of representative government which in turn is the main characteristic of democracy. The qualifications of a voter include:-
1. The voter should be a citizen of India.
2. He should be above the age of 18 years.

Q16. Which four electoral reforms, in your opinion, should be introduced in the Indian electoral system? (4 marks)

Ans. The reforms suggested for overcoming misuse of money power are:-

(1) The state should finance the election of candidates, by creating an election fund of about Rs. 100 crores for this purpose.

(2) As in the case of individual candidates, a ceiling on the election expenditure of political parties should also be fixed.

(3) Both individual candidates and parties should submit audited accounts of electoral expenses within a fixed period of time to the Election Commission.

(4) An all party national consensus should be built for finding ways and means of making elections less expensive for overcoming the corrupting influence of money in elections.

Q17. State any four functions of Municipal Corporation. (4 marks)
Ans. The 74th Constitutional amendment lays down that municipalities would go beyond the mere provisins of civil amenities. Now, they are expected to play a crucial role in the formulation of plans for local development and the implementation of development projects and programmes including those specially designed for urban poverty alleviation. The functions of Municipal Corporation include:-
(1) Supply of water, construction and maintenance of water works, supply of electricity, road transport services, construction, maintenance, naming and numbering of public streets.

(2) Establishment and maintenance of hospitals, maternity and child welfare centres, vaccination and inoculation, registration of births and deaths.

(3) Construction of public parks, gardens, libraries, museums, theatres, akharas and stadium, planting and care of trees on the roadside and elsewhere.

(4) Relief of destitute and disabled persons, registration of marriages, surveys of buildings and lands, organisation and management of fairs and exhibitions.

Q18. What do you understand by Communalism? How can it be curbed? (4 marks)
Ans. Communalism can be defined as the political functioning of individuals or groups for the selfish interests of particular religious communities or sects. Prof. Rasheeduddin Khan suggests that communalism is basically an ideology of political allegience to a religious community as a primarily and decisive group in the polity and for political action. Hence, communalism is a modern phenomena and not a phenomenon of the medieval past. It is a sectarian, restrictive and negative response to the process of modernization and modern nation-building. In our struggle against communalism we should mobilise a wide cross-section of our people including genuine religious persons, women, youth, professional groups because communalism is both anti-national and anti-human. Communalism may be curbed by the following means:-
(1) De-recognition of parties which by their policies and practices encourage or promote communalism.
(2) Punishment to concerned officers in a locality or district found guilty of dereliction of duty in controlling communal violence or threat of violence.

(3) Removal of communal orientation in textbooks and reading material prepared in schools.

(4) Instructions to TV, radio and media to avoid coverage of news and views likely to promote communal prejudice and hatred.

Q19. 'Ever growing population in India has got to be checked'. Make any four suggestions in this direction. (4 marks)
Ans. Population is the source of the most important factor of production, labour. But if the population grows at an uncontrolled rate, it may not prove good for the country. It may curb economic growth and give rise to problems like poverty, unemployment undue pressure on land and social crimes. This is what is happening in India. The following measures may be taken to control the population growth:-
(1) Family Planning:- making available family planning methods through different outlets in urban, semiurban and rural areas, setting up of family planning centres to make available the various services related to family planning and financial assistance to acceptors and motivators of family planning methods like sterlization.

(2) Proper education:- promoting female education and employment; arrangement for education in health and biology of reproduction.

(3) Late marriage:- Promotion of delayed marriages will reduce the fertility period and therefore in some way will check the population growth.

(4) Making health services available to lower mortality among infants and provision of nutrition, immunisation and other protective and preventive measures against diseases.

Q20. What role is played by the National Development Council of India? (4 marks)
Ans. The National Development Council is one of the key organizations of the planning system in India. It symbolizes the federal approach to planning and is the instrument for ensuring that the planning system adopts a truly national perspective. Its status has been determined by the prevailing political climate and the support provided to it by the government in power at the centre and the effectiveness of the pressures exerted by the state governments. Not with standing the vicissitudes that it has faced during the past four decades, its continuing presence in the apex-policy structure has always been felt. The functions of the NDC, as revised in 1967, following the adoption of the recommendations of the Administrative Reforms Commission, are as follows:-
(1) To prescribe guidelines for the formulation of the national plan;

(2) To consider the national plan as formulated by the Planning Commission.

(3) To assess resources required for implementing the plan and to suggest ways and means for raising them.

(4) To consider important questions of social and economic policy affecting development.

(5) To review the working of the plan from time to time and to recommend such measures as are necessary for achieving the aims and targets articulated in the national plan.

Q21. Critically exmaine 'Liberalism'. (8 marks)
Ans. Liberalism is a doctrine emerged out of the Enlightenment, the Glorious Revolution in England and the French revolution. From the enlightenment emerged the view that there are no moral goals which we know for certain to be absolutely right and therefore to impose any one way of life on the citizen of a state is wrong. From the Glorious Revolution emerged the view that the divine right of any kind of rule could not be justified and from the French Revolution the claim that the individual liberty is so sacred that no authority can violate it.

However, liberalism remained the philosophy of the capitalist classes and its objective is to provide a congenial atmosphere for the development of capitalism. It talks about minimial state interference in economy. Even if the state is assigned certain welfare functions, the objective is not to give justice to the workers but they are used for appeasing the revolutionary working class.

Though positive liberalism regards the state as a moral and welfare institution, if at certain stage, its welfare measures fail in satisfying the working class and the working class threatens the capitalist socio-economic system, then the state sheds off its democratic posture and emerges in its naked form. This increases the threat of totalitarianism.

Liberalism maintains that political power (state) can regulate economic power (capitalist class) in the overall interest and welfare of society. But this is practically untrue because it is the economic power which controls the political power.

Moreover, positive liberalism enthrusts the state with the responsibility of creating conditions necessary for the fulfilment of individuals liberty. It maintains that the state is the gaurdian of collective welfare. But this view is not correct as the question of liberty is closely associated with the socio-economic system and the conditions for the fulfilment of liberty cannot be established by any agency in a capitalist system.

Liberalism also maintains that through progressive taxation, income redistribution policies and economic measures of the state, economic equality can be achieved but the fact is that without abolishing private property in a class divided society equality will be unrealistic.

The marxist critique of liberalism is that social change in a class divided society can not be brought about by social reforms and incremental changes but by the intensification of class- struggle through a revolution. During the course of development of liberalism itself, the change from feudalism to capitalism was not brought about by incremental changes but through the English, French and other revolutions. Thus, liberalism rejects the scientific
process of revolutionary change.


Q21. What do you know about Fascism? Describe its main features. (8 marks)
Ans. Fascism has no specific theory because it emerged as a socio-economic and political programme. Fascism opposes ideology and maintains that it is an action oriented movement and it is based on pragmatism.

For Fascism, society is the end, individuals the means and its whole life consists in using individuals as instruments for its ends. The ideology of Fascism is dominated by the dogma of a state and an irresistible govt., which has the right to interfere in all spheres of the individuals' life, whether economic moral or religious. A citizen's obligation to the state are more important than his rights. Fascism proclaims the rights of the state, pre-eminence of its authority, and the superiority of its end. It repudiates pacifism and glorifies war. They maintain that is essential exercise which keeps the states healthy and fit.

Fascists recognised no individual liberties as sacred. They instead relied upon the methods of moral intimidation, physical compulsion and official propaganda. It was a punishable crime to criticise government and to conduct propaganda for the doctrines and parties dissolved by the government and to spread "false" or "exaggerated" news abroad concerning internal conditions of the country.

Fascism had no political theory. The methods which it adopted in the pursuit of its ends were not fixed, as they were not based on any reasoning. They were highly flexible and could easily be adjusted and made workable in attaining its objects; so, naturally, they could not be consistent with one another.

The state or nation, according to the Fascist assumption, is an independent entity with a real will of its own, which is quite distinct from the popular will which democracy owns. The Fascists deemed popular sovereignity as a fictitious creation of democracy and they denounced democracy because it gave power to the masses. Political authority, it was advocated, must be aristocratic because "only a minority of the nation has the capacity to perceive and give effect to national interest." Sovereignty was not vested in the individual, but in the nation state and only the few selected had the right to speak for the nation.

The Fascists had always been explicit in defence of violence as a means of achieving political aims. Fascism is totalitarian in its means and it uses any form of coercion, from verbal threats to mass murders, for obtaining its ends. Barring this Fascism was also opposed to inter- nationalism and did not give proper regard to interanational law, treaties etc.

Fascism rejected both laisse-faire and state ownership of economy. Private ownership of property was allowed but self-interest must be held in constant subordination to the national interest.

In short, we can say that was a reactionary and counter-revolutionary theory for the defence of crises ridden capitalist order.

Q22. Explain the Right to Freedom, what restrictions have been imposed with this Right? (8 marks)
Ans. Article 19 of the Constitution Guarantees six freedoms . These include right;-
(a) to freedom of speech and expression
(b) to assemble peacefully and without arms
(c) to form associations or unions
(d) to move freely throuhout the territory of India
(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India
(g) to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business: [Article 191(f) has been deleted]

No state can give or guarantee absolute or unlimited rights. Every right is subjected to reasonable limitations, the judge of reasonableness of restrictions is the Supreme Court of India.

With regard to limitations on freedom of speech & expression - the constitution imposes eight limitations.
They relate to (i) defamation, (ii) Conempt of Court; (iii) decency or morality; (iv) Security of state; (v) friendly
relations with foreign states; (vi) incitement to an offence; (vii) Public order; (viii) Maintenance of the sovereignty and integrity of India.

With regard to limitations freedom of assembly - It is stipulated that any assembly must be peaceful and without arms.

As far as limitations on the right to form , associations or unions go the state can impose reasonable restrctions in the interest of public order or morality or the sovereignty or integrity of India. No group of individuals can enter into a criminal conspiracy or form any association etrimental to the Public peace.

With regard to limitations on freedom of movement - the state is empowered to impose restrictions in the interests of the general public or for the protection of any Scheduled Tribe.

FREEDOM OF THE PRESS: There is no specific provision conferring freedom of the press on the Indian Citizen. This freedom is included in the wider freedom of "expression" which is guaranteed by Article 19(a) .The state is empowered to impose reasonable restrictions on the freedom of the press in the interests of "security of the state, the sovereignty and integrity of India, friendly relations with foreign states, Public order decency or morality, or for the prevention of contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence".

Thus every major Fundamental Right is followed by certain limitations specified by the constitution itself.


Q22. Describe the right to Constitutional Remedies. Examine its importance. (8 marks)
Ans. Every citizen must possess the right to enforce his rights. In the absence of such a right, civil and political rights are meaningless. Article 32 of the Constitution of India guaratees to every citizen the right to move the Supreme Court for the Enforcement of Fundamental Rights as well as the power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari. A brief explanation of the writs is as follows:-

Habeas Corpus -
When a person is imprisoned allegedly without the procedure established by law, the court can command the authority detaining him to produce him in court and to submit the cause of imprisonment. In case the court finds that there are no significant grounds of detention, the court passes an order that the applicant be set free.

Mandamus -
A writ of mandamus is an order of the court directing a public authority to perform its duty, in its non-performance causes injury to the petitioner.

Certiorari -
The writ of certiorari is issued for correcting the errors of jurisdiction or when any court has acted malafide. The writ is not used for declaring an Act or Ordinance as unconstitutional. The writ is issued against a subordinate court, tribunal or any administrative authority if it performs judicial or quasi-judicial functions.

Prohibition -
The writ of prohibition is issued if a judicial authority or an administrative authority performing a quasi-judicial function exceeds its jurisdiction.

Quo warrants-
This writ is issued to declare that the respondent does not legally hold an office or privilege to which he lays claim. In this writ the court tries the right of the respondent to hold a public office.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar declared this right to be the soul of the constitution.

Q23. Examine the role of political parties in democratic system.
(8 marks)

Ans. Political parties are almost indispensable part of present day political systems. Modern form of representative democracy, in particular, laid down the rule that political party in one form, or another is omnipresent in the political process. The phenomena of party is linked with the growth of complexity of political systems in which the notion of political power has come to include the idea that the mass public must participate or be controlled.

In general the role of parties is not similar in all aspects and at all times in all the socieities. In developing societies, the political parties are expected to play an active entrepreneural role in the formation of new ideas, in the establishment of a network of communication for those ideas and in the linking of the public and the leadership in such a way that power is generated, mobilised and directed. It is the political parties that organize the vastly
diversified people by nominating candidates for office and by popularizing the ideas around which governmental programmes are built. They are vehicles through which individuals and groups work to secure political power and if successful, to exercise that power.

Political parties, thus, bring order out of chaos by putting before a multitude of people their programmes and securing their approval on vital issues of policy. They plan and contest elections and endeavour to win by taking up positions on policy matters and presenting them as choices between parties. By raising issues, selecting from them, taking sides and generating political heat they educate the public and clarify opinion.

The first role of the political parties is to sort out the issues for the electorate. They select candidates for election, plan and execute the election campaign and present them with alternatives to the people between which they may choose. The second role of the parties is to supply the majorities without which govt. cannot remain in power. The govt. would have no stability and no power to plan a coherent policy, national or international if it did not have a majority. Parties provide alternative teams to run the govt. They prevent the same people remaining in power too long and looking on an office as a matter of right. A party system always reminds the rulers that the ultimate appeal rests with the people, and they must remember those to whom they will have to account in the future as well as those who entrusted them with power.

An important function of the political parties is to unite the many segments of the society on common goals and attain political power on their behalf and form the govt. We can thus end here with Edmund Burke's definition of party "as a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed."

Q24. Describe the programmes and policies of the B.J.P. (8 marks)
Ans. To begin with, BJP tried to project itself different from the Bharatiya Jan Sangh (BJS). So, while permitting dual membership with RSS they proclaimed that their ideal was "Gandhian Socialism". However, the programme of the BJP was vague. For eg. it said that the directive principles calling for the amelioration of the economic conditions could be effected without touching the Fundamental Rights. However in 1985, the BJP National executive abandoned Gandhian socialism and returned to the old Sangh concept of "Integrated humanism". Since then, its main plank has been the criticism of minoritism allegedly followed by the Congress governments. In that it has also been attacking the prevailing concepts of secularism and composite culture. In the economic field the party is critical of socialistic rhetorics and controlled economy.

It is headstrong about the fact that the nation's unity and progress can be best ensured if the Hindus assert themselves more vigorously. It demands to ban cow slaughter and above all building of "Ram Temple" after the demolition of "Babri Masjid". It also talks about the abolition of Article 370 of the Constitution which gives a special status to Jammu and Kashmir. Establishment of a uniform civil code is also on its agenda.

On the economic front, BJP lays emphasis on "Swadeshi" to encourage Indian industry and production as against multinational or foreign companies. It promises to lessen the burden of indirect taxation on the general mass of the people. At the same time, it resolves to raise the income tax exemption limit. Then the BJP commits itself to allocating 60% of annual plan funding to the rural and agricultural sector.

It social fields also the BJP promises justice to all sections. It has accepted the principle of reservation on caste basis. It promises 33% reservation of seats in the Parliament and State legislatures for women. The party continues with the ideal of nationalism based on "Hindutava". The BJP is committed to the concept of one nation, one people, one culture. It commits itself to the principle of "Sarva Dharam Sambhav" ensuring pride and security for all sections of society irrespective of their religious identity and no favour to any one religous or ethnic group.

In brief, the BJP claims that the party's programme is based on five principles:
(a) Nationalism and national integration
(b) Commitment to democracy
(c) Positive Secularism
(d) Humansim, that is economy based on Bread, with freedom
(e) Value-based politics.

BJP did emerge as the single largest party in the 1999 elections however bowing to the pressures of coalition politics, it had to compromise on a few issues. Construction of Ram Temple, abolition of Article 370, and establishment of uniform civil code have been kept on the backburner.

Q25. Evaluate the role of India in the United Nations. (8 marks)
Ans. India witnessed the birth of the UN as a meek participant at the San Fransisco conference and was honoured with the original membership of the organisation. Her contribution to the maintenance of international peace and security, her unique record of supporting UN activities, and measures against apartheid, and colonialism, her unwavering commitment to the UN & to the cause of multilateralism and rich contribution to the debates on disarmament and development and human rights stand out as outstanding successes of India's foreign policy. India desired UN to become a broad-based organisation reflecting the realities of the world and advocated the principle of universality of membership. India fully supported the cause of admission of those sovereign states which were being denied admission including China and many socialist countries.

India had been in the forefront in extending support to the liberation movements, in all parts of the world and in persuading the UN to effectively intervene in defence of the right of the people for national independence. Hence, India actively supported for years at various times, and under different circumstances, the cause of freedom, for instance in Indonesia, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Ghana, Namibia, South Africa and Palestine.

India also took an active part in responding to the UN call for providing contingents for peace- keeping operations despite its limitations in terms of military and financial fields. It also provided leadership to some important missions, such as Sinai, Yemen, Cyprus, Namibia, where it provided force commanders. Keeping its long tradition and commitment to global peace and tranquility, India took an important decision in 1995 to commit a Brigade Group to the UN standby Force arrangement so that peace operations would not be delayed due to lack of forces at UN command.

India's main concern is to work assiduously and constructively for disarmament, especially nuclear disarmament and for shift of focus on global economic development and social justice in all countries of an interdependent one world. India advocated a policy of elimination of nuclear weapons in a time-bound framework. India had called for a ban on testing of nuclear weapons, a freeze in production of materials that could be used for nuclear weapons, a convention stopping the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons and a global multilateral negotiation of the nuclear weapon states to first reduce and then eliminate nuclear weapons.

India has also taken a leading and active part in other UN activities concerning Development, Human Rights, Environment and Population Control. India has also been successful in focussing the attention of the international community on the phenomenon of terrorism as an important violation of human rights for which terrorist groups as also their sponsors should be held accountable.

After 50 years of independence, India should take time off to reasses its global role and hopes from the UN which should cut across boundaries and national interests and should be based on the 4 Rs and the equally 4Ds. The four Rs being Renewal, Reform, Restructuring and Restrenghtening. The four Ds could include Development, Demoratisation, Disarmament and Decolonisation.