Science Class- XII
Sample Paper- Year 1997 (Solved)
Define Law. (2 marks)
Ans. The word Law comes from the old teutonic route 'lag' which means to lay, to
place, to set. So it is something laid down or set. However, it would be more
appropriate to define law as a set of generally accepted rules and regulations
governing inter-relationships in human society seeking to create order and
balanced development of all laws may be natural or positive, national or
international, constitutional or ordinary, civil or criminal and public or
Q2. What do you understand by justice? (2
Ans. The word 'Justice' comes from the Latin word 'Jus' which means 'bondage' or
'to bind'. Justice lies in the satisfaction of basic needs of the people of
society. It means to treat all citizens on an impartial ground. Legal justice
deals with principles and procedures as laid down by the system of law
prevailing in a state. Moral justice, on the other hand, deals with what is
right and what is wrong. Though justice is for the general order of the society
as a whole, it also protects the individual. Social justice seeks to reform
society in accordance with current idea of what is right or fair eg. land
reforms, prevention of discrimination and equitable distribution of national
resources and wealth.
What do you mean by 'dictatorship of the proletariat'? (2 marks)
Ans. The transitional period after the occurance of the proletarian revolutional
is called the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. The power will be captured by the
workers. The proletarian dictatorship will monopolise state power and shall use
it as an instrument for consolidating its political victory and for the
establishment of social order by redistribution the assets of capitalist and
landlords and placing the means of production into the hand of the community.
The basis of economy would be from each according to his work. The next stage
will be the establishment of a classless society called communism.
Q4. What is a Welfare State? (2 marks)
Ans. Welfare state is that state which works for the happiness and prosperity of
the people so that each individual can develop his personality. It means that
the state must take upon itself the social responsibility of providing goods and
services to weaker sections in society. The aim of the welfare state is
preventive. It seeks to alter the very conditions which lead to unemployment,
sickness or poverty. Thus a welfare state is expected to look after public
health, provide education, ensure right to work, right to shelter and
unemployment benefits to all its citizens.
Q5. Mention any two Gandhian Directive
Principles. (2 marks)
Ans. Gandhian Directive Principles of State Policy include:-
(a) Article 46 wants the state to promote the lot of SCs & STs. Their
educational and economic interest are to be protected. Their exploitation should
(b) Article 47 wants to secure the improvement of public health by prohibiting
consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs.
(c) Article 40 is directed towards the regeneration of village panchayat.
(d) Article 39 observes that the state shall direct its policy towards securing
equal pay for equal work for both men & women.
Q6. State any two duties performed by a
citizen. (2 marks)
Ans. The fundamental duties were incorporated in the Indian constitution for the
purpose of making the citizens patriotic and help them to follow a code of
conduct that would strengthen the nation. A few of them may be mentioned here:-
1. To abide by and respect the Constitution, the National Flag, and the National
2. Defend the country and render national service when required.
Q7. What do you mean by proportional
representation. (2 marks)
Ans. Proportional representation is a system of representation the main focus of
which is to ensure that the number of seats a political party gets in the
legislature should be proportionate to the popular votes it obtains from the
electorate in any given election. There are two methods by which proportional
representation can be achieved : the single transferable vote system, also
called the Hare System and the list system.
Q8. Write any two functions of the
Election Commission. (2 marks)
Ans. The main functions of the Election Commission include:-
(i) To prepare, revise, update and maintain the list of voters for election to
the Parliament, State Legislatures, Local bodies and to the office of the
President and the Vice-president of India.
(ii)To conduct and supervise elections and bye-election to the Parliament, state
Legislatures, and to the Office of the President and the Vice-President of
(iii)To delimit constituencies for the election to the Parliament and to the
State legislatures, and to allot a number of seats to each of them.
(iv) To fix the election proramme, including dates for nomination and scrunity
of candidates, and date of elections; make arrangements for setting up necessary
number of polling booths, lay down procedure for the exercise of secret ballot,
appoint adequate number of returning officers, and declare results after the
proper counting and scrutiny of votes.
Q9. Give any two sources of income of the
Panchayat Samiti. (2 marks)
Ans. There are two main sources of income of the Panchayat Samitis - grants in
aid given by the state government for development activities, and taxation
accruing from part of the land revenue.
Q10. What do you understand by
'planning'? (2 marks)
Ans. In the new economic environment, economic planning continues to be an
important factor determining the strategies for public investment, besides
providing guidelines for channelisiing private sector investment in desired
directions. They have to act as "mutually complementary forces" in
ensuring rapid economic develoment of the nation. In certain key areas including
energy, human resource development, backward areas development, management of
balance of payments etc. a holistic approach to policy formulation is needed.
Another important area of concern for the planning commission would be that of
effecting maximum possible utilization of the plan allocation, rather than
aiming at increase in the allocations. The key to efficient utilization of
resources lies in the creation of "appropriate self-managed
organizations" at all levels.
The Commission will have to play a more integrative role in the development of a
wholitic approach to policy formulation in the crucial areas of human and
economic development. Areas such as rural health, drinking water, rural energy,
literacy and environmental protection will have to gain primacy in the priority
outline of the Commission.
In the new era of economic restructuring, the Planning Commission should
concentrate on strategies of employment generation, anti-poverty programmes,
social development and ensuring balance within the infrastructure.
Mention the relation between liberty and equality. (4 marks)
Ans. Historically speaking the glorification of Liberty precedes that of
equality. Be it the ancient Greek & Roman ideals of liberty of Locke's
Natural rights, the concept of equality was not to be found. It was during the
American & the French revolutions in 1776 & 1789 respectively that the
idea of equality got itself aligned to liberty. However, Scholars like Lord
Acton and Tocqueville still insisted that equality destroyed the possibility of
having liberty. According to them Liberty means absense of any restrain or
coersion whereas equality
needs some restrain or levelling which is against the principles of Liberty.
But such a concept of liberty is based on misunderstanding of the term. Liberty
does not mean mere absense of restrain . It means to be autonomous and self -
determining. It implies that whatever autonomy I have will not prevent others
from equal autonomy. It implies that we are all equally entitled to realise our
capacities. Equality is the condition in which this takes place to the maximum .
(i) Political equality is best gauranteed in a democracy in which each citizen
is to count for one.
(ii) Civil equality or equality before law is the precondition of freedom. Laws
should equally guarantee security of person & property because it is only
then that we can have conditions necessary for enjoyment of our autonomy.
(iii)As far as economic equality is concerned, it has been seen that all laws
and taxes dimnish one's Liberty but sometimes they do so to increase the general
Thus relating to development of human personality, it is required that the
ideals of Equality & Liberty should have a simultaneous flow.
Q12. State any four developmental
activities of the state. (4 marks)
Ans. In the twenty-first century, almost all the nations are engaged in
developmental activities in order to make their countries prosper. Barring the
aim of development of nation state, mass participation and need for equality
have also led the governments to undertake regulation of economic activity and
undertake welfare programmes. A few developmental activities of the state are
(1) The states government have entered into areas earlier reserved for private
enterprises eg. Post Office and the Railways, to make them more efficient and
(2) The state is also engaged in harnessing river through such activities as
construction of dams and power houses. It also seeks to manage atomic energy for
peace as well as for war. Most of the atomic energy commissions are set up and
controlled directly by the states.
(3) The state sets up enterprises in public sector or joint sector for providing
support to other industries or curb the growth of monopoly.
(4) The state raises money through taxes to support and promote economic growth.
By graduated income tax it levels income. By tariff it influences foreign trade.
Whenever money is required for development, the state also receives financial
assistance from countries.
Q13. Write any four Directive Principles of State Policy
that have been implemented.
Ans. The governments of the union and states have made impressive effects to
translate many of the directives into practice.
(1) Article 40 - Introductin of Panchayati Raj Institutions.
The village Panchayats have become a reality and a further impetus in this field
has been provided by the 73td Amendment Act, 1992, which has provided for a
three- tier panchayati raj structure with all the posts to be filled by direct
elections on the basis of adult franchise. Moreover, there is a provision of
reservation for SC, ST and women.
(2) Article 47 - Prohibition of intoxicating Drinks and Drugs. In some states
like Haryana, some effort has been there in this direction.
(3) Article 50 - Seperation of Executive from Judiciary. It is the most
important requisite for the promotion of liberty in a democratic set up. The
criminal procedure court has vested the function of judicial trial in the hands
of judicial magistrate. The members of the judiciary are under the complete
control of the high court, thus separation of Executive from Judiciary is
implemented in our country in most of the states.
(4) Article 53(A), 51(B), 51(C) & 51(D) - Promotion of International Peace.
These principles are embodied in the foreign policy of India based on Panchsheel
and dynamic neutrality. Moreover, India supports the UN in its various peace
keeping missins and other activities.
Q14. Define rights. Mention any two political rights. (4
Ans. Rights are those claims which are recognised by the society, enforced by
the state and aim at general good. They provide exernal conditions necessary for
the development of individual personality. Thus as Hobhouse puts it, rights are,
"what we may expect from others and others from us, and all genuine rights
are conditions of social welfare." However, rights are not absolute in
nature. Rights have to be limited by the social control in order to be
Political rights consists in:-
(1) Right to vote and get elected :- By right to vote we mean that every adult
citizen has the right to express his opinion by casting a vote at the time of
elections what persons he desires should undertake the task of government. The
right to vote and the right to be elected as a representative are twin-born and
essential for a democratic government.
(2) Right to public office :- The Constitution of India provides equality of
opportunity to all citizens in matters of employment under the state. No citizen
shall, on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex ineligible for any office
under the state. This is the gift of democracy which gives equal right to all
Q15. What do you mean by adult franchise? Mention any two
qualifications of a voter. (4 marks)
Ans. Adult franchise means that all the adult members of the society above a
specified age irrespective of caste, colour, creed are eligible to select their
representatives to run the country. It is thus recognised as the basis of
representative government which in turn is the main characteristic of democracy.
The qualifications of a voter include:-
1. The voter should be a citizen of India.
2. He should be above the age of 18 years.
Q16. Which four electoral reforms, in your opinion, should be
introduced in the Indian electoral system? (4 marks)
Ans. The reforms suggested for overcoming misuse of money power are:-
(1) The state should finance the election of candidates, by creating an election
fund of about Rs. 100 crores for this purpose.
(2) As in the case of individual candidates, a ceiling on the election
expenditure of political parties should also be fixed.
(3) Both individual candidates and parties should submit audited accounts of
electoral expenses within a fixed period of time to the Election Commission.
(4) An all party national consensus should be built for finding ways and means
of making elections less expensive for overcoming the corrupting influence of
money in elections.
Q17. State any four functions of Municipal Corporation. (4
Ans. The 74th Constitutional amendment lays down that municipalities would go
beyond the mere provisins of civil amenities. Now, they are expected to play a
crucial role in the formulation of plans for local development and the
implementation of development projects and programmes including those specially
designed for urban poverty alleviation. The functions of Municipal Corporation
(1) Supply of water, construction and maintenance of water works, supply of
electricity, road transport services, construction, maintenance, naming and
numbering of public streets.
(2) Establishment and maintenance of hospitals, maternity and child welfare
centres, vaccination and inoculation, registration of births and deaths.
(3) Construction of public parks, gardens, libraries, museums, theatres, akharas
and stadium, planting and care of trees on the roadside and elsewhere.
(4) Relief of destitute and disabled persons, registration of marriages, surveys
of buildings and lands, organisation and management of fairs and exhibitions.
Q18. What do you understand by Communalism? How can it be
curbed? (4 marks)
Ans. Communalism can be defined as the political functioning of individuals or
groups for the selfish interests of particular religious communities or sects.
Prof. Rasheeduddin Khan suggests that communalism is basically an ideology of
political allegience to a religious community as a primarily and decisive group
in the polity and for political action. Hence, communalism is a modern phenomena
and not a phenomenon of the medieval past. It is a sectarian, restrictive and
negative response to the process of modernization and modern nation-building. In
our struggle against communalism we should mobilise a wide cross-section of our
people including genuine religious persons, women, youth, professional groups
because communalism is both anti-national and anti-human. Communalism may be
curbed by the following means:-
(1) De-recognition of parties which by their policies and practices encourage or
(2) Punishment to concerned officers in a locality or district found guilty of
dereliction of duty in controlling communal violence or threat of violence.
(3) Removal of communal orientation in textbooks and reading material prepared
(4) Instructions to TV, radio and media to avoid coverage of news and views
likely to promote communal prejudice and hatred.
Q19. 'Ever growing population in India has got to be
checked'. Make any four suggestions in this direction. (4 marks)
Ans. Population is the source of the most important factor of production,
labour. But if the population grows at an uncontrolled rate, it may not prove
good for the country. It may curb economic growth and give rise to problems like
poverty, unemployment undue pressure on land and social crimes. This is what is
happening in India. The following measures may be taken to control the
(1) Family Planning:- making available family planning methods through different
outlets in urban, semiurban and rural areas, setting up of family planning
centres to make available the various services related to family planning and
financial assistance to acceptors and motivators of family planning methods like
(2) Proper education:- promoting female education and employment; arrangement
for education in health and biology of reproduction.
(3) Late marriage:- Promotion of delayed marriages will reduce the fertility
period and therefore in some way will check the population growth.
(4) Making health services available to lower mortality among infants and
provision of nutrition, immunisation and other protective and preventive
measures against diseases.
Q20. What role is played by the National Development Council
of India? (4 marks)
Ans. The National Development Council is one of the key organizations of the
planning system in India. It symbolizes the federal approach to planning and is
the instrument for ensuring that the planning system adopts a truly national
perspective. Its status has been determined by the prevailing political climate
and the support provided to it by the government in power at the centre and the
effectiveness of the pressures exerted by the state governments. Not with
standing the vicissitudes that it has faced during the past four decades, its
continuing presence in the apex-policy structure has always been felt. The
functions of the NDC, as revised in 1967, following the adoption of the
recommendations of the Administrative Reforms Commission, are as follows:-
(1) To prescribe guidelines for the formulation of the national plan;
(2) To consider the national plan as formulated by the Planning Commission.
(3) To assess resources required for implementing the plan and to suggest ways
and means for raising them.
(4) To consider important questions of social and economic policy affecting
(5) To review the working of the plan from time to time and to recommend such
measures as are necessary for achieving the aims and targets articulated in the
Q21. Critically exmaine
'Liberalism'. (8 marks)
Ans. Liberalism is a doctrine emerged out of the Enlightenment, the Glorious
Revolution in England and the French revolution. From the enlightenment emerged
the view that there are no moral goals which we know for certain to be
absolutely right and therefore to impose any one way of life on the citizen of a
state is wrong. From the Glorious Revolution emerged the view that the divine
right of any kind of rule could not be justified and from the French Revolution
the claim that the individual liberty is so sacred that no authority can violate
However, liberalism remained the philosophy of the capitalist classes and its
objective is to provide a congenial atmosphere for the development of
capitalism. It talks about minimial state interference in economy. Even if the
state is assigned certain welfare functions, the objective is not to give
justice to the workers but they are used for appeasing the revolutionary working
Though positive liberalism regards the state as a moral and welfare institution,
if at certain stage, its welfare measures fail in satisfying the working class
and the working class threatens the capitalist socio-economic system, then the
state sheds off its democratic posture and emerges in its naked form. This
increases the threat of totalitarianism.
Liberalism maintains that political power (state) can regulate economic power
(capitalist class) in the overall interest and welfare of society. But this is
practically untrue because it is the economic power which controls the political
Moreover, positive liberalism enthrusts the state with the responsibility of
creating conditions necessary for the fulfilment of individuals liberty. It
maintains that the state is the gaurdian of collective welfare. But this view is
not correct as the question of liberty is closely associated with the
socio-economic system and the conditions for the fulfilment of liberty cannot be
established by any agency in a capitalist system.
Liberalism also maintains that through progressive taxation, income
redistribution policies and economic measures of the state, economic equality
can be achieved but the fact is that without abolishing private property in a
class divided society equality will be unrealistic.
The marxist critique of liberalism is that social change in a class divided
society can not be brought about by social reforms and incremental changes but
by the intensification of class- struggle through a revolution. During the
course of development of liberalism itself, the change from feudalism to
capitalism was not brought about by incremental changes but through the English,
French and other revolutions. Thus, liberalism rejects the scientific
process of revolutionary change.
Q21. What do you know about Fascism? Describe its main
features. (8 marks)
Ans. Fascism has no specific theory because it emerged as a socio-economic and
political programme. Fascism opposes ideology and maintains that it is an action
oriented movement and it is based on pragmatism.
For Fascism, society is the end, individuals the means and its whole life
consists in using individuals as instruments for its ends. The ideology of
Fascism is dominated by the dogma of a state and an irresistible govt., which
has the right to interfere in all spheres of the individuals' life, whether
economic moral or religious. A citizen's obligation to the state are more
important than his rights. Fascism proclaims the rights of the state,
pre-eminence of its authority, and the superiority of its end. It repudiates
pacifism and glorifies war. They maintain that is essential exercise which keeps
the states healthy and fit.
Fascists recognised no individual liberties as sacred. They instead relied upon
the methods of moral intimidation, physical compulsion and official propaganda.
It was a punishable crime to criticise government and to conduct propaganda for
the doctrines and parties dissolved by the government and to spread
"false" or "exaggerated" news abroad concerning internal
conditions of the country.
Fascism had no political theory. The methods which it adopted in the pursuit of
its ends were not fixed, as they were not based on any reasoning. They were
highly flexible and could easily be adjusted and made workable in attaining its
objects; so, naturally, they could not be consistent with one another.
The state or nation, according to the Fascist assumption, is an independent
entity with a real will of its own, which is quite distinct from the popular
will which democracy owns. The Fascists deemed popular sovereignity as a
fictitious creation of democracy and they denounced democracy because it gave
power to the masses. Political authority, it was advocated, must be aristocratic
because "only a minority of the nation has the capacity to perceive and
give effect to national interest." Sovereignty was not vested in the
individual, but in the nation state and only the few selected had the right to
speak for the nation.
The Fascists had always been explicit in defence of violence as a means of
achieving political aims. Fascism is totalitarian in its means and it uses any
form of coercion, from verbal threats to mass murders, for obtaining its ends.
Barring this Fascism was also opposed to inter- nationalism and did not give
proper regard to interanational law, treaties etc.
Fascism rejected both laisse-faire and state ownership of economy. Private
ownership of property was allowed but self-interest must be held in constant
subordination to the national interest.
In short, we can say that was a reactionary and counter-revolutionary theory for
the defence of crises ridden capitalist order.
Q22. Explain the Right to Freedom, what restrictions have
been imposed with this Right? (8 marks)
Ans. Article 19 of the Constitution Guarantees six freedoms . These include
(a) to freedom of speech and expression
(b) to assemble peacefully and without arms
(c) to form associations or unions
(d) to move freely throuhout the territory of India
(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India
(g) to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or
business: [Article 191(f) has been deleted]
No state can give or guarantee absolute or unlimited rights. Every right is
subjected to reasonable limitations, the judge of reasonableness of restrictions
is the Supreme Court of India.
With regard to limitations on freedom of speech & expression - the
constitution imposes eight limitations.
They relate to (i) defamation, (ii) Conempt of Court; (iii) decency or morality;
(iv) Security of state; (v) friendly
relations with foreign states; (vi) incitement to an offence; (vii) Public
order; (viii) Maintenance of the sovereignty and integrity of India.
With regard to limitations freedom of assembly - It is stipulated that any
assembly must be peaceful and without arms.
As far as limitations on the right to form , associations or unions go the state
can impose reasonable restrctions in the interest of public order or morality or
the sovereignty or integrity of India. No group of individuals can enter into a
criminal conspiracy or form any association etrimental to the Public peace.
With regard to limitations on freedom of movement - the state is empowered to
impose restrictions in the interests of the general public or for the protection
of any Scheduled Tribe.
FREEDOM OF THE PRESS: There is no specific provision conferring freedom of the
press on the Indian Citizen. This freedom is included in the wider freedom of
"expression" which is guaranteed by Article 19(a) .The state is
empowered to impose reasonable restrictions on the freedom of the press in the
interests of "security of the state, the sovereignty and integrity of
India, friendly relations with foreign states, Public order decency or morality,
or for the prevention of contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an
Thus every major Fundamental Right is followed by certain limitations specified
by the constitution itself.
Q22. Describe the right to Constitutional Remedies. Examine
its importance. (8 marks)
Ans. Every citizen must possess the right to enforce his rights. In the absence
of such a right, civil and political rights are meaningless. Article 32 of the
Constitution of India guaratees to every citizen the right to move the Supreme
Court for the Enforcement of Fundamental Rights as well as the power to issue
directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus,
mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari. A brief explanation of the
writs is as follows:-
Habeas Corpus -
When a person is imprisoned allegedly without the procedure established by law,
the court can command the authority detaining him to produce him in court and to
submit the cause of imprisonment. In case the court finds that there are no
significant grounds of detention, the court passes an order that the applicant
be set free.
A writ of mandamus is an order of the court directing a public authority to
perform its duty, in its non-performance causes injury to the petitioner.
The writ of certiorari is issued for correcting the errors of jurisdiction or
when any court has acted malafide. The writ is not used for declaring an Act or
Ordinance as unconstitutional. The writ is issued against a subordinate court,
tribunal or any administrative authority if it performs judicial or
The writ of prohibition is issued if a judicial authority or an administrative
authority performing a quasi-judicial function exceeds its jurisdiction.
This writ is issued to declare that the respondent does not legally hold an
office or privilege to which he lays claim. In this writ the court tries the
right of the respondent to hold a public office.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar declared this right to be the soul of the constitution.
Q23. Examine the role of political parties in democratic
Ans. Political parties are almost indispensable part of present day political
systems. Modern form of representative democracy, in particular, laid down the
rule that political party in one form, or another is omnipresent in the
political process. The phenomena of party is linked with the growth of
complexity of political systems in which the notion of political power has come
to include the idea that the mass public must participate or be controlled.
In general the role of parties is not similar in all aspects and at all times in
all the socieities. In developing societies, the political parties are expected
to play an active entrepreneural role in the formation of new ideas, in the
establishment of a network of communication for those ideas and in the linking
of the public and the leadership in such a way that power is generated,
mobilised and directed. It is the political parties that organize the vastly
diversified people by nominating candidates for office and by popularizing the
ideas around which governmental programmes are built. They are vehicles through
which individuals and groups work to secure political power and if successful,
to exercise that power.
Political parties, thus, bring order out of chaos by putting before a multitude
of people their programmes and securing their approval on vital issues of
policy. They plan and contest elections and endeavour to win by taking up
positions on policy matters and presenting them as choices between parties. By
raising issues, selecting from them, taking sides and generating political heat
they educate the public and clarify opinion.
The first role of the political parties is to sort out the issues for the
electorate. They select candidates for election, plan and execute the election
campaign and present them with alternatives to the people between which they may
choose. The second role of the parties is to supply the majorities without which
govt. cannot remain in power. The govt. would have no stability and no power to
plan a coherent policy, national or international if it did not have a majority.
Parties provide alternative teams to run the govt. They prevent the same people
remaining in power too long and looking on an office as a matter of right. A
party system always reminds the rulers that the ultimate appeal rests with the
people, and they must remember those to whom they will have to account in the
future as well as those who entrusted them with power.
An important function of the political parties is to unite the many segments of
the society on common goals and attain political power on their behalf and form
the govt. We can thus end here with Edmund Burke's definition of party "as
a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national
interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed."
Q24. Describe the programmes and policies of the B.J.P. (8
Ans. To begin with, BJP tried to project itself different from the Bharatiya Jan
Sangh (BJS). So, while permitting dual membership with RSS they proclaimed that
their ideal was "Gandhian Socialism". However, the programme of the
BJP was vague. For eg. it said that the directive principles calling for the
amelioration of the economic conditions could be effected without touching the
Fundamental Rights. However in 1985, the BJP National executive abandoned
Gandhian socialism and returned to the old Sangh concept of "Integrated
humanism". Since then, its main plank has been the criticism of minoritism
allegedly followed by the Congress governments. In that it has also been
attacking the prevailing concepts of secularism and composite culture. In the
economic field the party is critical of socialistic rhetorics and controlled
It is headstrong about the fact that the nation's unity and progress can be best
ensured if the Hindus assert themselves more vigorously. It demands to ban cow
slaughter and above all building of "Ram Temple" after the demolition
of "Babri Masjid". It also talks about the abolition of Article 370 of
the Constitution which gives a special status to Jammu and Kashmir.
Establishment of a uniform civil code is also on its agenda.
On the economic front, BJP lays emphasis on "Swadeshi" to encourage
Indian industry and production as against multinational or foreign companies. It
promises to lessen the burden of indirect taxation on the general mass of the
people. At the same time, it resolves to raise the income tax exemption limit.
Then the BJP commits itself to allocating 60% of annual plan funding to the
rural and agricultural sector.
It social fields also the BJP promises justice to all sections. It has accepted
the principle of reservation on caste basis. It promises 33% reservation of
seats in the Parliament and State legislatures for women. The party continues
with the ideal of nationalism based on "Hindutava". The BJP is
committed to the concept of one nation, one people, one culture. It commits
itself to the principle of "Sarva Dharam Sambhav" ensuring pride and
security for all sections of society irrespective of their religious identity
and no favour to any one religous or ethnic group.
In brief, the BJP claims that the party's programme is based on five principles:
(a) Nationalism and national integration
(b) Commitment to democracy
(c) Positive Secularism
(d) Humansim, that is economy based on Bread, with freedom
(e) Value-based politics.
BJP did emerge as the single largest party in the 1999 elections however bowing
to the pressures of coalition politics, it had to compromise on a few issues.
Construction of Ram Temple, abolition of Article 370, and establishment of
uniform civil code have been kept on the backburner.
Q25. Evaluate the role of India in the United Nations. (8
Ans. India witnessed the birth of the UN as a meek participant at the San
Fransisco conference and was honoured with the original membership of the
organisation. Her contribution to the maintenance of international peace and
security, her unique record of supporting UN activities, and measures against
apartheid, and colonialism, her unwavering commitment to the UN & to the
cause of multilateralism and rich contribution to the debates on disarmament and
development and human rights stand out as outstanding successes of India's
foreign policy. India desired UN to become a broad-based organisation reflecting
the realities of the world and advocated the principle of universality of
membership. India fully supported the cause of admission of those sovereign
states which were being denied admission including China and many socialist
India had been in the forefront in extending support to the liberation
movements, in all parts of the world and in persuading the UN to effectively
intervene in defence of the right of the people for national independence.
Hence, India actively supported for years at various times, and under different
circumstances, the cause of freedom, for instance in Indonesia, Libya, Tunisia,
Morocco, Algeria, Ghana, Namibia, South Africa and Palestine.
India also took an active part in responding to the UN call for providing
contingents for peace- keeping operations despite its limitations in terms of
military and financial fields. It also provided leadership to some important
missions, such as Sinai, Yemen, Cyprus, Namibia, where it provided force
commanders. Keeping its long tradition and commitment to global peace and
tranquility, India took an important decision in 1995 to commit a Brigade Group
to the UN standby Force arrangement so that peace operations would not be
delayed due to lack of forces at UN command.
India's main concern is to work assiduously and constructively for disarmament,
especially nuclear disarmament and for shift of focus on global economic
development and social justice in all countries of an interdependent one world.
India advocated a policy of elimination of nuclear weapons in a time-bound
framework. India had called for a ban on testing of nuclear weapons, a freeze in
production of materials that could be used for nuclear weapons, a convention
stopping the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons and a global multilateral
negotiation of the nuclear weapon states to first reduce and then eliminate
India has also taken a leading and active part in
other UN activities concerning Development, Human Rights, Environment and
Population Control. India has also been successful in focussing the attention of
the international community on the phenomenon of terrorism as an important
violation of human rights for which terrorist groups as also their sponsors
should be held accountable.
After 50 years of independence, India should take time off to reasses its global
role and hopes from the UN which should cut across boundaries and national
interests and should be based on the 4 Rs and the equally 4Ds. The four Rs being
Renewal, Reform, Restructuring and Restrenghtening. The four Ds could include
Development, Demoratisation, Disarmament and Decolonisation.