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# (Syllabus) AIPMT 2011 Syllabus: PHYSICS

## All India PMT/PDT Entrance Examination 2011

## AIPMT 2011: PHYSICS SYLLABUS

**Unit : 1 Introduction and Measurement:
**What is Physics? Scope and excitement; Physics in relation
to science, society and technology; Need for measurement of physical
quantities, units for measurement, systems of units-SI : fundamental and derived
units. Dimensions of physical quantities. Dimensional analysis and its
applications. Orders of magnitude, Accuracy and errors in measurement – random
and instrumental errors, Significant figures and rounding off the numbers.

Graphs, Trigonometric functions, Concepts of differentiation and integration.

**Unit : 2 Description of Motion in One Dimension
**Objects in motion in one dimension, Motion in straight
line, Uniform and non-uniform motion, its graphical representation and formulae,
speed and velocity, relative velocity, average speed and instantaneous velocity.
Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time graph, position-time graph and their
formulae. Relations for uniformly accelerated motion with examples. Acceleration
in one-dimensional motion.

**Unit : 3 Description of Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
**Vectors and scalars quantities, vectors in two and three
dimensions, vector addition and multiplication by a real number, null-vector
and its properties. Resolution of a vector in a plane, rectangular components.
Scalar and vector products. Motion in two dimensions, cases of uniform velocity
and uniform acceleration-projectile motion, general relation among
position-velocity-acceleration for motion in a plane and uniform circular
motion. Motion of objects in three dimensional space (elementary ideas).

**Unit : 4 Laws of Motion
**Force and inertia, first law of motion. Momentum, second
law of motion, impulse, examples of different kinds of forces in nature. Third
law of motion, conservation of momentum, rocket propulsion. Equilibrium of
concurrent forces. Static and kinetic frictions, laws of friction, rolling
friction, lubrication, Inertial and non-inertial frames (elementary ideas).

**Unit : 5 Work, Energy and Power
**Work done by a constant force and by a variable force, unit
of work, energy and power. Work Energy Theorem. Elastic and in-elastic
collisions in one and two dimensions. Notions of potential energy, conservation
of mechanical energy : gravitational potential energy, and its conversion to
kinetic energy, potential energy of a spring. Conservative forces. Different
forms of energy, mass-energy equivalence, conservation of energy.

**Unit : 6 Rotational Motion
**Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum
conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of rigid body, general
motion of a rigid body, nature of rotational motion, rotational motion of a
single particle in two dimensions only, torque, angular momentum and its
geometrical and physical meaning, conservation of angular momentum, examples of
circular motion (car on a level circular road, car on banked road, pendulum
swinging in a vertical plane). Moment of inertia, its physical significance,
moment inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes, parallel axis
and perpendicular axis theorem (statements only), Comparison between translatory
(linear) and rotational motion.

**Unit : 7 Gravitation
**Acceleration due to gravity, one and two dimensional motion
under gravity. Universal law of gravitation, inertial and gravitational mass,
variations in the acceleration due to gravity of the earth, statement of
Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, orbital velocity, geostationary satellites,
gravitational potential, gravitational potential energy near the surface of
earth, escape velocity, weightlessness.

**Unit : 8 Heat and Thermodynamics
**Thermal equilibrium and temperature ( zeroth law of
thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. Specific heat, specific heat
at constant volume and constant pressure of ideal gas and relation between them.
First law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic state, equation of state and
isothermals, pressure-temperature phase diagram. Thermodynamic processes
(reversible, irreversible, isothermal, adiabatic). Carnot cycle, second law of
thermodynamics, efficiency of heat engines. Entropy. Transfer of heat :
conduction, convection and radiation. Newton ’s law of cooling.

Thermal conductivity. Black body radiation, Wien’s law, Solar constant and surface temperature of the sun, Stefan’s law,

**Unit : 9 Oscillations
**Periodic and oscillatory motions. Simple harmonic motion
(S.H.M.) and its equation of motion. Oscillations due to a spring, kinetic
energy and potential energy in S.H.M., Simple pendulum, physical concepts of
forced oscillations, resonance and damped oscillations; Simple examples.

**Unit : 10 Waves
**Longitudinal and transverse waves and wave motion, speed of
progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves; reflection of waves,
harmonic waves (qualitative treatment only), standing waves. Normal modes and
its graphical representation. Beats, Doppler effect.

**Unit : 11 Electrostatics
**Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation,
unit of charge, Coulomb’s law, dielectric constant, electric field, electric
field due to a point charge, electric potential – its physical meaning,
potential due to a di-pole, di-pole field and behaviour of dipole in a uniform
(2-dimensional) electric field. Flux, Statement of Gauss’s theorem and its
applications to find electric field due to uniformly charged simple systems.
Conductors and insulators, presence of free charges and bound charges inside a
conductor, Capacitance (parallel plate), Dielectric material and its effect on
capacitance (concept only), capacitances in series and parallel, energy of a
capacitor. Van de Graff generator.

**Unit : 12 Current Electricity
**Introduction (flow of current), sources of e.m.f., cells :
simple, secondary, chargeable, combinations of cells in series and parallel.
Electric current, resistance of different materials, temperature dependence,
thermistor, specific resistivity, colour code for carbon resistors. Ohm’s law
and its limitation. Superconductors (elementary ideas). Kirchoff’s laws,
resistances in series and parallel, Wheatstone’s bridge, measurement of
resistance. Potentiometer – measurement of e.m.f. and internal resistance of a
cell.

**Unit : 13 Thermal and Chemical Effects of Currents
**Electric power, heating effects of current and Joule’s law.
Thermoelectricity: Seebeck effect, measurement of temperature using
thermocouple. Chemical effects and Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.

**Unit : 14 Magnetic Effect of Currents
**Oersted’s observation, Biot-Savart’s law (magnetic field
due to an element of current), magnetic field due to a straight wire, circular
loop and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in a uniform magnetic field (Lorentz
force), cyclotron (simple idea), forces and torques on currents in a magnetic
field, forces between two currents, definition of ampere, moving coil
galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter. Conversion of galvanometer into
voltmeter/ammeter.

**Unit : 15 Magnetism
**Bar magnet (comparison with a solenoid), magnetic lines of
force, torque on a bar magnet in a magnetic field, earth’s magnetic field as a
bar magnet, tangent galvanometer, vibration magnetometer. Para, dia and
ferromagnetic substances with examples (simple idea). Electromagnets and
permanent magnets.

**Unit : 16 Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
**Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction, Lenz’s Law,
induced emf, self and mutual inductance. Alternating current, and voltage,
impedance and reactance; A.C. circuits containing inductance, capacitance and
resistance; phase relationships, and power in a.c. circuits, L.C oscillations.
Electrical machines and devices (transformer, induction coil, generator, simple
motors, choke and starter), eddy current.

**Unit : 17 Electromagnetic Waves (Qualitative Treatment)
**Electromagnetic oscillations, brief history of
electromagnetic waves (Maxwell, Hertz, Bose, Marconi). Electromagnetic spectrum
(radio, micro-waves, infra-red, optical, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays)
including elementary facts about their uses, propagation of electromagnetic
waves in atmosphere.

**Unit : 18 Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
**Ray optics as a limiting case of wave optics. Phenomena of
reflection, refraction, and total internal reflection. Optical fibre. Curved
mirrors, lenses; mirror and lens formulae. Dispersion by a prism. Spectrometer.
Absorption and emission spectra. Scattering and formation of rainbow. Telescope
(astronomical), microscope, their magnifications and resolving powers.

**Unit : 19 Electrons and Photons
**Discovery of electron, e/m for an electron, electrical
conduction in gases, photoelectric effect, particle nature of light, Einstein’s
photoelectric equation, photocells. Matter waves – wave nature of particles,
de-Broglie relation, Davison and Germer experiment.

**Unit : 20 Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei
**Rutherford model of the atom, Bohr model, energy
quantization. Hydrogen spectrum. Composition of nucleus, atomic masses, binding
energy per nucleon of a nucleus, its variation with mass number, isotopes, size
of nucleus. Radioactivity : properties of a, b and g rays. Mass energy
relation, nuclear fission and fusion.

**Unit : 21 Solids and Semiconductor Devices
**Crystal structure-Unit cell; single, poly and liquid
crystals (concepts only). Energy bands in solids, difference between conductors,
insulators and semi-conductors using band theory. Intrinsic and extrinsic
semiconductors,

p-n junction, semiconductor diodes, junction transistor, diode as rectifier, solar cell, photo diode, LED, Zener diode as a voltage regulator, transistor as an amplifier and oscillator. Combination of gates. Elementary ideas about IC.