(Paper) CLAT UG Question Paper 2011 : Logical Reasoning


(Paper) Previous Year Question Paper (BA LLB) - 2011

Section - V : Logical Reasoning


Note: The following six questions comprise of one or more statements. Please answer the questions on the basis of the given statement(s). Please make the factual assumptions required by the question even if you believe the statement is false.

1. `Where there is smoke, there is fire.’ Which of the following statements, if true, would show that the above statement is false?

(a) There is sometimes smoke where there is no fire.
(b) There is sometimes fire where there is no smoke.
(c) There is no fire where there is no smoke.
(d) None of the above.

2. `Where there is poverty, there are always thieves.’ Which of the following statements, if true, would show that the above statement is false?

(a) America is a rich country and there are thieves in America.
(b) Bhutan is a poor country and there are no thieves in Bhutan.
(c) Bangladesh is a poor country and there are many thieves in Bangladesh.
(d) Nepal is a rich country and there are no thieves in Nepal.

3. Statement 1: Sugar is bad for people with diabetes.
Statement 2: Leela does not eat sugar.
Assuming that Statements l and 2 are true, which of the iuiiuwing statements follows?

(a) Leela has diabetes.
(b) Sugal is ba for Leela
(c) People with diabetes do not eat sugar.
(d) None of the above.

4. Statement I: People who read fashion magazines do not like to read fiction. Statement 2: Tenzin does not read fashion magazines.
Assuming that Statements I and 2 are true, which of the following conclusions might be said to follow?

(a) Tenzin likes to read fiction.
(b) Tenzin may or may not like to read fiction.
(c) Tenzin does not like to read fiction.
(d) Tenzin does not like fashion magazines.

5. Suleiman: All Communists are atheists.
Sheeba: That is not true.

Which of the following, if true, would make Sheeba’s reply the most convincing?

(a) My uncle is an atheist but he is not a Communist.
(b) My uncle is a Communist but he is not an atheist.
(c) My uncle is a Communist and an atheist.
(d) My uncle is neither a Communist nor an atheist.

6. Statement l: All pingos are byronic.
Statement 2: Shalisto is byronic.
Statement 3: Therefore_________________.

Fill in the blank.

(a) Shalisto is a pingo.
(b) Shalisto is not a pingo.
(c) Shalisto is not byronic.
(d) None of the above

For the following eight questions, study the sequence of letters, numbers or words carefully to work out the pattern on which it is based, and therefore what the next item in the sequence must be. For example, the sequence `A, C, E, G, ___ , has odd numbered letters of the alphabet; therefore, the next item must be `I’. The meanings of the words are irrelevant.

7. A, B, D, G, K, P,_

What is the last alphabet in this sequence?

(a) Z
(b) Y
(c) V
(d) X

8. B, C, E, G, K, M, Q, S, –

What is the next alphabet in this sequence?

(a) T
(b) U
(c) V
(d) W

9. Z, X, T, N, –

What is the next alphabet in this sequence’?

(a) E
(b) F
(c) G
(d) H

10. `Apple, Application,________, Approval, Apricot, April’

Which of the following best fits in the blank?

(a) Arrogant
(b) April
(c) Appropriate
(d) Apiary.

11. `Sunday, Monday, Wednesday, Saturday, Wednesday, Monday, Sunday,____________ ‘

Which of the following best fits in the blank?

(a) Sunday
(b) Tuesday
(c) Saturday
(d) Thursday

12. `387924,____________, 3724, 423, 32, 2′. Which number is missing?

(a) 42978
(b) 42783
(c) 42983
(d) 42783

13. `Gym, hymn, lynx, pygmy, rhythm’

Which of the following words does not belong to the above set?

(a) Myrrh
(b) Mythic
(c) Flyby
(d) Syzygy

14. Aadvark, Eerie, liwi, Oolong,

Which of the following words follows the pattern of this series?

(a) Uvula
(b) Uulium
(c) Uranium
(d) Uranus

For the following nine questions, read the given argument or statement carefully, making any factual assumptions necessary. Then choose the best answer out of the four choices to the question asked. Note that not all the facts given will be relevant for determining the answer.

15. `China has a higher literacy rate than India. This is due to the greater efficiency of the Communist system. Efficiency is sorely lacking in India’s democratic system. Therefore, democracy is the biggest obstacle to India’s achieving 100% literacy.’

Which of the following, if nme, would directly undermine the above argument?

(a) Inefficiency is equally a problem in democracies and Communist countries.
(b) Communist systems do not respect human rights.
(c) Freedom is more important than literacy.
(d) China is slowly making the transition to democracy.

16. `In 399 BC, a jury in Athens condemned Socrates to death for impiety and corrupting the morals of the youth. Socrates’ friends offered to help him escape, but Socrates refused. Socrates argued that the fact that he had lived in Athens for so many years meant that he had committed himself to obeying its laws. It would therefore be wrong for him to break those very laws he was implicitly committed to obeying.’

Which one of the following claims constitutes the most plausible challenge to Socrates’ argument?

(a) Long residence only commits someone to obeying just laws and Socrates was convicted under an unjust law.
(b) Long residence by itself does not imply a commitment to obeying laws since one never made any explicit commitment.
(c) Obedience to the law is not always required.
(d) There is no point in escaping from prison since one will anyway be captured again.

17. `Soft drinks have been shown by scientists to be bad for the teeth. Therefore, the government would be justified in banning all soft drinks from the Indian market.’
Assuming that the factual claim in the above argument is true, what else needs to be assumed for the conclusion to follow?

(a) The government is justified in banning anything that is bad for dental health.
(b) Soft drinks are also bad for gastric health.
(c) Dental hygiene is a matter of great concem.
(d) No further assumptions are necessary.

18. `In order to be eligible for election to the Lok Sabha, a person must be at least 25 years of age. Moreover, one must not be bankrupt. Therefore, Iatinder Sir.gh, over 50 years of age and without any criminal convictions, cannot be the Speaker of the Lok Sabha since he has just filed’ for bankruptcy.’

Which of the following must be assumed for the conclusion to follow logically?

(a) Anyone over 50 years of ago is eligible to be Speaker of the Lok Sabha as long as he or she has no criminal convictions.
(b) People without criminal convictions cannot be elected to the Lok Sabha even if they are not bankrupt.
(c) Only those eligible for election to the Lok Sabha are eligible to be the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
(d) There is no minimum age requirement for the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

19 `As a century draws to a close, people start behaving much like people coming to the end of a long life. People approaching death often start reflecting on the events of their lives. Similarly,’ people alive in 1999_________

Which of the following most logically completes the paragraph above?

(a) … started reflecting on the events of the twentieth century.
(b) … started to reflect on the events of their lives.
(c) … started to fear death.
(d) … started to wonder what the year 2000 would bring.

20. ‘The Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius proposed the following thought experiment. if the universe has a boundary, we can throw a spear at (his boundary. If the spear flies through, then it is not a boundary. If the spear bounces back, there must something beyond this boundary that is itself in space, which means it is not a boundary at all. Either way, it turns out that the universe has no boundary.’

How best can the form of Lucretius’ argument for the infinity of space be described?

(a) Luuetius shows that positing finite space leads to a contradiction.
(b) Lucretius shows that finite space is inconsistent with physics.
(c) Lucretius shows that finite space is inconsistent with mathematics.
(d) Lucretius shows that finite space is inconceivable.

21. `Utilitarians believe that the right action is that which produces the most happiness.’

Which of the following claims is incompatible with the utilitarian view?

(a) The right thing to do is to make the consequences of our actions as good as possible.
(b) The right thing to do is to do our duty, whatever the consequences.
(c) The right thing to do is to act on a rule which, if followed widely, produces the most happiness.
(d) The right thing to do is to act from motivations which produce the most happiness.

22. `Senthil goes to Ambala for the first time in his life. On the way from the railway station to his hotel, he sees twelve people, all of them male. He concludes that there are no women in Ambala. As a matter of fact, there are many thousands of women in Ambala.’

Which of the following best describes Senthil’s error?

(a) Senthil was misled by irrelevant details.
(b) Senthil generalised on the basis of insufficient evidence.
(c) Senthil was biased against women.
(d) Senthil was bad at counting.

23. `It took many centuries before the countries of Europe could resolve their internal problems of violence and corruption to become the stable nation-states they are. Therefore, it will take many centuries for India to achieve internal stability.’

Assuming that the factual claims in the argument above are hue, what must be assumed in order for the conclusion to follow?

(a) Countries everywhere must follow the same paths towards stability.
(b) India is gradually progressing towards internal stability.
(c) Indian can learn how to achieve stability by studying Europe’s example.
(d) India has no hope of achieving stability in the near future.

In the following three questions, assume that a `fact’ expresses something that can be proved by clear and objective data. An opinion expresses a judgment, view, attitude, or conclusion that is not backed by data.

24. Which one of the following statements is best described as an assertion of opinion rather than an assertion of fact?

(a) Brazil, China and India are now among the largest emitters of greenhouse gases.
(b) Scientists agree that human activity is an important cause of climate change.
(c) The Indian government’s policy on climate change is misguided.
(d) The Indian government’s policy on climate change has changed significantly in the last five years.

25. ‘(A) The number of people migrating into Bengalum has increased significantly in recent years. (B) This is because Bengaluro provides more economic opportunities than the towns and villages from which these migrants come. (C) This sudden influx of migrants has made the city less pleasant to live in. (D) The success of the government’s rural employment guarantee act might have the effect of stemming some rural-urban migration.’

Which one of the above statements is best described as an assertion of opinion rather than an assertion of fact?

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

26. Which one of the following statements, if true, is best described as an assertion of opinion rather than an assertion of fact?

(a) Mumbai is larger than Pune.
(b) Mumbai is smaller than Pune.
(c) Mumbai is more cultured than Pure.
(d) Mumbai is more crowded than Pune.

For the following three questions, there are two or more statements along with few conclusions deduced from the statements. You are required to answer on the basis of the statements and the conclusions. Make the factual assumptions required by the question even if you believe the statement is actually false.

27. Statement 1: Some aeroplanes are balloons.
Statement 2: Some balloons are rockets.

Conclusions:

(A) Some aeroplanes are rockets.
(B) Some rockets are tables.
(C) All the rockets are balloons.
(D) All the balloons are aeroplanes.

Asuming that statements 1 and 2 are true, which conclusions follow:

(a) Only (B) and (D)
(b) Only (A) and (C)
(c) Only (D)
(d) None of the above.

28. Statement 1: All whales are fish.
Statement 2: Some fish are not amphibians.
Statement 3: All whales are amphibians.
Statement 4: Some amphibians are not fish.

Conclusions:

(A) Some fish are amphibians.
(B) Some amphibians are fish.
(C) Only whales are both fish and amphibians.
(D) All amphibians are fish.

Assuming only that Statements 1. 2, 3 and 4 are true, which of the above conclusions may be deduced?

(a) Only (A) and (B).
(b) Only (C).
(c) Only (D).
(d) None of the above.

29. Statement 1: All libraries are laboratories.
Statement 2: No laboratories are hostels.

Conclusions:

(A) All laboratories are libraries.
(B) Some hostels are libraries.
(C) Some libraries are hostels.
(D) No library is a hostel.

Assuming that statements 1 and 2 are true, which conclusions follow?

(a) Only (A) and (B)
(b) Only (B) and (C)
(c) Only (C) and (D)
(d) Only D

For the following sixteen questions, read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Instead of being concerned with what actually happens in practice … [economics] is increasingly) reoccupied with developing pseudo-mathematical formulas. These provide models of behavior which never quite fit what actually happens, in a way which resembles the physical sciences ;one wrong: instead of equations describing reality, economics produces equations describing deal conditions and theoretical clarity of a type which never occurs in practice’.

30. Which of the following best summarises the argument of this paragraph?

(a) Economics ought to be more like the physical sciences.
(b) Theoretical clarity is undesirable in economics.
(c) The physical sciences are wrong to emphasise mathematic formulae.
(d) The mathematical equations used by economists do not accurately describe the real world.

31. Which of the following claims is not implied in the paragraph above?

(a) Economists should stop using mathematical models.
(b) Equations describing ideal conditions should not be mistaken for equations describing reality.
(c) Theoretical clarity should not come at the expense of accuracy.
(d) Models of human behaviour should be true to the complexity of human nature.

32. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument of the passage above?

(a) The physical sciences are themselves reducing their reliance on mathematical formulae.
(b) The real world in fact closely approximates ideal theoretical conditions.
(c) We do not at present have the mathematical expertise to model the full complexity of the world economy.
(d) Academic economists need to be more sensitive to human nature.

`Religions, like camel caravans, seem to avoid mountain passes. Buddhism spread quickly south from Buddha’s birth-place in southern Nepal across the flat Gangetic plain to Sri Lanka. But it took a millennium to reach China … The religious belt stretched eventually to Mongolia and Japan, but in Afghanistan Buddhism filled only a narrow belt that left pagans among the valleys to the east and west in Kailash and Ghor’.

33. Which of the following best summarises the subject of this paragraph?

(a) The Afghan people were hostile to Buddhism.
(b) Geography has considerable impact on the spread of religions.
(c) Buddhism does not flourish in mountainous regions.
(d) Religion has a considerable impact on geography.

34. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion to the above argument?

(a) Christianity took several centuries to cross the Atlantic Ocean to America.
(b) The Hindukush mountains made no difference to the speed with which Islam spread.
(c) Buddhism is strongest in mountainous regions.
(d) Jainism is less popular in cold climates.

`Friendship was indeed a value for the villagers, more for men than for women. Two good friends were said to be `like brothers’ (literally, `like elder brother-younger brother’, annatammandirahage). I heard this expression several times and l could not help recalling the statement of an elderly English colleague who had told me that he and his brother were very close and had written to each other every week. He had added, `We are very good friends.’ That is, friendship connoted intimacy in England while in Rampura (as in rural India everywhere), brotherhood conveyed intimacy’.

35. Which of the following best summarises the conclusion of the argument of this paragraph?

(a) Friendship has greater value for men than for women.
(b) People in England have different altitudes to brotherhood and friendship than people in rural India.
(c) Brotherhood has greater value in rural India than in England.
(d) Friendship has greater value in England than in India.

36. Which of the following, if true, would directly contradict the conclusion of the above argument?

(a) People are less likely to have large families in England.
(b) People in England are no longer close to their family members.
(c) People in England do not think that friendship connotes intimacy.
(d) People in rural India think that sisters cannot be intimate.

‘A language is most easily leant when it is in tune with the social context. To teach an Indian child in English at the primary stage … strengthens distinctions of class and status and warps the mind. Failure to resort to regional languages in literacy campaigns also hampers their success’.

37. Which of the following best summaries the argument of the passage above?

(a) Learning English warps the mind.
(b) Language policy should be devised with an eye to social context.
(c) Literacy campaigns in India have failed.
(d) English should be taught at the secondary school level.

38. Which of the following claims, if true, would weaken the argument in the passage above?

(a) Literacy campaigns are more successful when conducted in English.
(b) Learning English at an early age has been found to weaken class distinctions.
(c) Children who learn English at the primary-school stage have been found to show greater intellectual ability than those who team English only at the secondary level.
(d) All of the above.

`The tribes should develop their own culture and make their contribution to the cultural richness of the country.. It is unnecessary to cause them to change their customs, habits or diversions so far as to make themselves indistinguishable liom stimulating diversity’.

39. Which of the following conclusions is not implied by the passage above’?

(a) It is good for India’s tribal people to develop their culture.
(b) Tribal customs should not be allowed to change in any respect.
(c) Forcing tribal people to change their customs reduces the diversity of rural life.
(d) Tribal culture is part of the cultural richness of India.

40. Which of the following claims runs directly counter [o the spirit of the passage above?

(a) Tribal people should be able to decide what elements of the modem world to adopt.
(b) The government should make modem science and medicine available to tribal people.
(c) Tribal people should not be subjected to any coercion to conform to non-tribal cultural norms as long as they do not violate the law.
(d) The tribals should assimilate as far as possible into non-tribal culture as a condition of full citizenship.

41. Which of the following is not an assumption required by the above argument?

(a) Colour and diversity are desirable things.
(b) Tribal people are capable of contributing to India’s cultural diversity.
(c) Changing tribal customs is a necessary condition of making modern medicine available to tribal people.
(d) Rural life is presently full of colour and diversity.

`India is the only country in the world where, in the States which are governed by the Communist party, human rights are fully respected — and that is only because the Bill of Rights is firmly entrenched in our national Constitution. We can proudly say that our Constitution gave us a flying start and equipped us adequately to meet the challenges of the future.’

42. Which of the following conclusions is not implied by the passage above?

(a) Communist states often do not respect human rights.
(b) Communist states never respect human rights.
(c) The entrenchment of the Bill of Rights is what ensures that even Communist governed states respect human rights.
(d) The Indian Constitution prepared India for the challenges of independence.

43. Which of the following, if true, would weaken the above argument?

(a) Communist governments are motivated to respect human rights out of Communist principles, not Constitutional ones.
(b) The Constitution of India is itself sympathetic to Communist principles.
(c) Human rights need to be enforceable to have any meaning.
(d) Countries without a strong culture of human rights are prone to oppressing minorities.

‘Poverty is … more restrictive and limiting than anything else. It poverty and low standards continue then democracy, for all its fine institutions and ideals, ceases to be a liberating force. It must therefore aim continuously at the eradication of poverty and its companion unemployment. In other words, political democracy is not enough. It must develop into economic democracy also’.

44. Which of the following is not implied by the above passage?

(a) Democracy has ceased to be a liberating force.
(b) Democracies should aim to eliminate poverty.
(c) Poverty and unemployment go hand in hand.
(d) Political democracy should develop into economic democracy.

45. Which of the following views, if true, would weaken the argument of the above passage?

(a) Political democracy is inseparable from economic democracy.
(b) Poverty does not in fact restrict freedom.
(c) Democracy flourishes most in poor societies.
(d) Economic democracy is a necessary condition for the elimination of unemployment.

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