Courses of Studies 2011
Class : 11th & 12th
Physics (Code No 042)
Senior Secondary stage of school education is a stage of transition from
general education to discipline-based focus on curriculum. The present updated
syllabus keeps in view the rigour and depth of disciplinary approach as well as
the comprehension level of learners. Due care has also been taken that the
syllabus is not heavy and is at the same time, comparable to the international
Salient features of the syllabus include:
Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content.
Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and
formulations as per international standards.
Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement
of concepts with their linkage for better learning.
Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/ content
within the discipline and other disciplines.
Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of
Physics concepts. Besides, the syllabus also attempts to
strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm
foundation for further learning in the subject.
expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial
and technological applications.
develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision
making and investigatory skills in the learners.
promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners.
develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and
appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.
Class XI (Theory)
One Paper Three Hours Max Marks: 70
Unit I – Physical World & Measurement 03 Marks
Unit II – Kinematics 10
Unit III – Laws of Motion 10
Unit IV – Work, Energy & Power 06 Marks
Unit V – Motion of System of particles & Rigid Body 06 Marks
Unit VI – Gravitation 05
Unit VII – Properties of Bulk Matter 10 Marks
Unit VIII – Thermodynamics 05 Marks
Unit XI – Behaviour of Perfect Gas & Kinetic Theory of gases 05 Marks
Unit X – Oscillations & Waves 10 Marks
Unit I: Physical World and Measurement (periods 10)
Physics – scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and
society. Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units,
fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and
precision of measuring instruments;
errors in measurement; significant figures.
Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
Unit II: Kinematics
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph,
speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and
instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time,
position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical
Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
Scalar and vector quantities: vectors, notation, Position and displacement
vectors, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number;
addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components. Motion
in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile
Unit III: Laws of Motion
Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and
Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of
conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction,
rolling friction. Uniform circular motion, Dynamics of uniform circular motion:
Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road,
vehicle on banked road).
Unit IV: Work, Energy and
Power (Periods 16)
Scalar product of vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force;
kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces:
conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies);
non-conservative forces: elementary idea of elastic and inelastic collisions.
Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body (Periods
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conversation and centre of
mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
Vector product of vectors; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum,
conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational
motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions;
Moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple
geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular
axes theorems and their applications.
Gravitation (Periods 14)
Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation.
Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity.
Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus,
bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity.
Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic
lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.
Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and
turbulent flow. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface
tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary action.
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat – calorimetry; change of
state – latent heat. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal
conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling.
Unit VIII: Thermodynamics (Periods
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of
thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics.
Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat
engines and refrigerators.
Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic
theory of gases – assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and
temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of
equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of
gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.
Unit X: Oscillations and Waves (Periods
Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time.
Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase;
oscillations of a spring–restoring force and force constant; energy in
S.H.M.-kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum– derivation of expression
for its time period; free and forced (damped) oscillations (qualitative ideas
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion.
Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of
waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes,
fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.
Note: Every student will perform 10 experiments (5 from each
section) and 8 activities (4 from each section) during the academic year.
Two demonstration experiments must be performed by the teacher with
participation of students. The students will maintain a record of these
demonstration experiments. Schools are advised to follow the guidelines for
evaluation in practicals for Class XII.
Evaluation Scheme for Practical Examinations
l One experiment from any one section 8
l Two activities (one from each section) (4+4) 8 marks
l Practical record (experiments & activities) 6
l Record of demonstration experiment & Viva based on these experiments 3
l Viva on experiments & activities 5
1. Use of Vernier Callipers
(i) to measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body.
(ii) to measure dimensions of a given regular body of known mass and hence find
(iii) to measure internal diameter and depth of a given beaker/calorimeter and
hence find its volume.
2. Use of screw gauge
(i) to measure diameter of a given wire, (ii) to measure thickness of a given
(iii) to measure volume of an irregular lamina
3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a
4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors.
5. Using a simple pendulum, plot L-T and L-T2 graphs. Hence find the effective
length of second’s pendulum using appropriate graph.
6. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal
reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal
7. To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due
to gravitational pull of the earth and study its relationship with the angle of
inclination by plotting graph between force and sinθ.
1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2cm, 0.5cm.
2. To determine mass of a given body using a metre scale by principle of
3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and
4. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a
5. To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection.
6. To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down on inclined plane
(using a double inclined plane).
1. To determine Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.
2. To find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting graph between load
3. To study the variation in volume with pressure for a sample of air at
constant temperature by plotting graphs between P and V, and between P and I/V.
4. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method.
5. To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given viscous liquid by
measuring terminal velocity of a given spherical body.
6. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by
plotting a cooling curve.
7. (i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under
constant tension using sonometer.
(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for
constant frequency using sonometer.
8. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube
by tworesonance positions.
9. To determine specific heat of a given (i) solid (ii) liquid, by method of
1. To observe change of state and plot a cooling curve for molten wax.
2. To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip.
3. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret
4. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary
5. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.
6. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped metre scale
(i) at its end (ii) in the middle.
1. Physics Part-I, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
2 . Physics Part-II, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
Class XII (Theory)
One Paper Time: 3 Hours 70 Marks
Unit II Current Electricity
Unit III Magnetic effect of current & Magnetism 08 Marks
Unit IV Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating current 08 Marks
Unit V Electromagnetic Waves 03
Unit VII Dual Nature of Matter 04
Unit VIII Atoms and Nuclei
Unit IX Electronic Devices
Unit X Communication Systems 05
Unit I: Electrostatics
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point
charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines;
electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform
Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field
due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and
uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point
charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical
potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.
Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination
of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate
capacitor with dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a
capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.
Unit II: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift
velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law,
electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical
energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors,
colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors;
temperature dependence of resistance.
emf and potential difference of a cell, internal resistance of a cell,
combination of cells in series and in parallel.
Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference
and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of small resistances and
internal resistance of a cell.
Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, Force
between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, straight
and toroidal solenoids. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform
magnetic field. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field;
moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and
Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic
dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a
magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis.
Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar
magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field
and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with
examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent
Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating
Currents (Periods 20)
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law,
Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance, displacement current.
Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage;
reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR
series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.
AC generator and transformer.
Unit V: Electromagnetic waves (Periods 4)
Displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics
(qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible,
ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit VI: Optics
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light,
total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at
spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula.
Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact.
and dispersion of light through a prism.
Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun
at sunrise and sunset.
Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of
plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and
refraction using Huygens’ principle.
Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width,
coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a
single slit, width of central maximum. Polarisation, plane polarised light;
Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of
eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses.
Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their
magnifying powers. Resolving power of microscopes
and astronomical telescopes.
Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations;
Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer
Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei (Periods
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model,
energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties;
radioactive decay law.
Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation
with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion.
Unit IX: Electronic Devices (Periods
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse
bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell,
and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor,
transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier
(common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND
and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
Unit X: Communication Systems (Periods 10)
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals
(speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of
electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need
for modulation. Production and detection
of an amplitude-modulated wave.
Every student will perform 10 experiments (5 from each section) & 8 activities
(4 from each section) during the academic year. Two demonstration experiments
must be performed by the teacher with participation of students. The students
will maintain a record of these demonstration experiments.
1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph
of potential difference versus current.
2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the
specific resistance of its material.
3. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a
4. To compare the emf of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
5. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using
6. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to
find its figure of merit.
7. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit)
into an ammeter and voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
8. To find the frequency of the a.c. mains with a sonometer.
1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or
without iron core.
2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of
a given circuit using multimeter.
3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off)
switches, a fuse and a power source.
4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady
6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery,
resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not
connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.
1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror
and to find the focal length.
2. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v
or between l/ u and l/v.
3. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph
between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
7. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex
lens and plane mirror.
8. To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junction in forward bias and
9. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its
reverse break down voltage.
10. To study the characteristics of a common – emitter npn or pnp transistor and
to find out the values of current and voltage gains.
1. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on
2. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a capacitor
from mixed collection of such items.
3. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor. (ii) distinguish
between npn and pnp type transistors. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of
current in case of a diode and an LED.
(iv) check whether a given electronic component (e.g. diode, transistor or I C)
is in working order.
4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident
obliquely on a glass slab.
5. To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids.
6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by (i) convex lens (ii)
concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different
distances of the candle from the lens/ mirror).
8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two
lenses from the given set of lenses.
B. Evaluation Scheme for Practical Examination:
One experiment from any one
section 8 Marks
Two activities (one from each
section) (4+4) 8 Marks
Practical record (experiments &
activities) 6 Marks
Record of demonstration experiments & Viva based on these experiments 3 Marks
Viva on experiments &
1. Physics Part-I, Textbook for XII, Published by NCERT
2. Physics Part-II, Textbook for XII, Published by NCERT