Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic
Measurement in chemistry (significant figures, SI unit, Dimensional
analysis). Chemical classification of matter (mixtures, compounds and
elements, and purification). Law of chemical combination and Dalton’s Atomic
theory. Atomic Mass (mole concept, determination of chemical formulae).
Chemical equation (balancing of chemical equation and calculations using
Elements, their Occurrence and extraction
Earth as a source of elements, elements in biology, extraction of
metals (mettallurgical process, production of concentrated ore, production of
metals and their purification). Mineral wealth of India. Qualitative test of
States of Matter Gaseous state
(measurable properties of gases, Boyle’s Law, Charle’s Law
and absolute scale of temperature, Avogadro’s hypothesis, ideal gas
equation, Dalton’s law of partial pressure).
Kinetic molecular theory of gases (the
microscopic model of gas, deviation form ideal behaviour).
The solid state (classification of solids,
X-ray studies of crystal lattices and unit cells, packing of constituent
particles in crystals). Liquid state (Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure,
Surface tension, Viscosity).
Atomic Structures Constituents of the atom
(Discovery of electron, Rutherford model of the atom).
Electronic structure of atoms (nature of
light and electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra, Bohr’s model of Hydrogen
atom, Quantum mechanical model of the atom, electronic configurations of
atoms, Aufbau principle).
Dual nature of matter and radiation. The
uncertainty principle. Orbitals and Quantum numbers. Shapes of orbitals.
Electronic configuration of atoms.
Chemical Families – Periodic Properties
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, Modern Periodic Law, Types of
elements (Representative elements-s & p block elements, inner transition
elements – d-block elements, inner transition elements – f-block
elements). Periodic trends in properties. (Ionization energy, electron
affinity, atomic radii, valence, periodicity in properties of compounds).
Chemical Bonding and Molecular structure
Chemical bonds and Lewis structure shapes of molecules (VSEPR
theory). Quantum theory of the covalent bond (Hydrogen and some other simple
molecules, carbon compounds, hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds).
Coordinate covalent bond (Ionic bond as an
extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar
molecules. Bonding in solid state (Ionic, molecular and covalent solids,
metals). Hydrogen bond, Resonance.
Molecules: Molecular orbital method.
Formation of H2, O2, N2, F2 on the basis of MOT. Hybridisation, Dipole moment
and structure of molecules.
The Solid State
Structure of simple ionic compounds. Close-packed structures.
Ionic-radii, Silicates (elementary ideas). Imperfection in solids (point
defects only). Properties of solids, Amorphous solids.
The Gaseous state.
Ideal gas equation-Kinetic theory (fundamentals only)
UNIT 8 Solutions
Types of solutions, Vapour-pressure of solutions and
Raoult’s law. Colligative properties. Non-ideal solutions and abnormal
molecular masses. Mole concpt-stoichemistry, volumetric analysis-concentration
Chemical Energetics and Thermodynamics
Energy changes during a chemical reaction, Internal energy and
Enthalpy (Internal energy, Enthalpy, Enthalpy changes, Origin of Enthalpy
change in a reaction, Hess’s Law of constant heat summation, numericals
based on these concepts). Heats of reactions (heat of neutralization, heat of
combustion, heat of fusion and vaporization).
Sources of energy (conservation of energy
sources and identification of alternative sources, pollution associated with
consumption of fuels. The sun as the primary source).
First law of thermodynamics: Internal
energy, Enthalpy, application of first law of thermodynamics.
Second law of thermodynamics : Entropy,
Free energy, Spontaneity of a chemical reaction, free energy change and
chemical equilibrium, free energy available for useful work.
Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas
equilibrium involving dissolution of solid in liquids, gases in liquids,
general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes).
Equilibria involving chemical systems (the
law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude of the equilibrium constant,
Effect of changing conditions of systems
at equilibrium (change of concentration, change of temperature, effect of
catalyst-Le Chateliar’s principle).
Equilibria involving ions (ionization of
electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acid-base equilibrium, various
concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH, solubility product,
numericals based on these concepts).
Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer process. Redox
reactions in aqueous solutions-electrochemical cells. EMF of a galvanic cell.
Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (nearest equation and
numerical problems based on it). Electrolysis, Oxidation numbers (rules for
assigning oxidation number, redox reactions in terms of oxidation number and
nomenclature). Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations.
Electrolytic conduction. Voltaic cell,
Electrode potential and Electromotive force, Gibb’s free energy and cell
potential. Electrode potential and Electrolysis.
Rates of Chemical Reactions and Chemical Kinetics
Rate of reaction, Instantaneous rate of reaction and order of
reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions (factors affecting rate of
collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature
on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy, catalysis). Effect of
light on rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex
reactions. How fast are chemical reactions?
Rate expression. Order of a reaction (with
suitable examples). Units of rates and specific rate constants. Order of
reaction and effect of concentration. (study will be confined to first order
only). Temperature dependence of rate constant – Fast reactions (only
elementary idea). Mechanism of reaction (only elementary idea). Photochemical
Chemistry of Hydrocarbons
Alkanes (structure, isomerism, conformation).
Stereo Isomerism and chirality (origin of chirality, optical rotation, racemic
Alkenes (isomerism including cis-trans).
Arenes (structure of benzene, resonance structure, isomerism in arenes).
Sources of hydrocarbons (origin and composition of coal and petroleum;
Hydrocarbons from coal and petroleum cracking and reforming, quality of
gasoline-octane number, gasoline additives).
Laboratory preparation of alkanes (preparation from unsaturated hydrocarbons,
alkyl halides and carboxylic acids).
Laboratory preparation of alkenes (preparation from alcohols, alkyl halides).
Laboratory prepration of alkynes (preparation from calcium carbide and
Physical properties of alkanes( boiling and melting points, solubility and
Reactions of hydrocarbons (oxidation, addition, substitution and miscellaneous
Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds
Purification (crystallization, sublimation, distillation,
differential extraction, chromatography).
Qualitative analysis (analysis of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens).
Quantitative analysis (estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens,
sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen).
Determination of molecular mass (Victor Mayer’s method, volumetric method).
Calculation of empirical formula and molecular formula.
Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of
Organic Chmistry Based on Functional Group-I
(Halides and Hydroxy compounds)
Nomenclature of compounds containing halogen atoms and hydroxyl groups :
haloalkanes, haloarenes; alcohols and phenols.
Correlation of physical properties and uses.
Preparation, properties and uses of following :
Polyhalogen compounds : Chloroform, Idoform
Polyhydric compounds, Ethane 1, 2-diol; Propane-1,2,3 triol Structure and
reactivity – (a) Induction effect, (b) Mesomeric effect, (c) Electrophiles
and Nucleophiles, (d) Types of organic reaction.
Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group II
(Ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their
Nomenclature of ethers, aldehydes, ketones,
carboxylic acids and their derivatives. (acylhalides, acid anhydrides, amides
General methods of preparation,
correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties
(Note : Specific compounds should not be
stressed for the purpose of evaluation)
Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group-III
(Cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and amines)
Nomenclature and classification of amines, cynadies, isocyanides, nitro
compounds and their method of preparation; correlation of physical properties
with structure, chemical reactions and uses.
Chemistry of Non-metals – I
(Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen)
Hydrogen (position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, properties,
reactions and uses)
Oxygen (occurrence, preparation, properties and reactions, uses, simple
Water and hydrogen peroxide (structure of water molecule and its aggregates,
physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, water
softening, hydrogen peroxides, preparation, properties, structure and uses).
Nitrogen(Preparation, properties, uses, compounds of Nitrogen – Ammonia,
Oxides of Nitrogen, Nitric Acid – preparation, properties and uses).
Chemistry of Non-metals – II
(Boron, Carbon, Silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, halogens and the
Boron (occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties, borax and
boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds).
Carbon, inorganic compounds of carbon
(oxides, halides, carbides), elemental carbon.
Silicon (occurrence, preparation and
properties, oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus, chemical fertililzers).
Sulphur (occurrence and extraction,
properties and reactions, oxides: Sulphuric acid – preparation, properties
and uses, sodium thiosulphate).
Halogens (occurrence, preparation,
properties, hydrogen halides, uses of halogens).
Noble gases (discovery, occurrence and
isolation, physical properties, chemistry of noble gases and their uses).
Chemistry of lighter Metals
Sodium and Potassium (occurrence and extraction, properties and
uses, important compounds – NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCI, KOH).
Magnesium and calcium (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses,
important compounds MgCl2, MgSO4, CaO, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaSO4, plaster of paris).
Aluminium (occurrence, extraction, properties and uses, compounds – AlCl3,
Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium.
Iron (Occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron, oxides,
halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and steel).
Copper, silver and gold (occurrence and extractions, properties and uses,
compound – sulphides, halides and sulphates, photography).
Zinc and Mercury (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses,
compound-oxides, halides; sulphides and sulphates).
Tin and Lead (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds –
oxides, sulphides, halides).
Chemistry of Representative Elements
Periodic properties – Trends in groups and periods (a)
Oxides-nature (b) Halides-melting points (c) Carbonates and sulphates –
The chemistry of s and p block elements, electronic configuration, general
characteristics properties and oxidation states of the following :- Group 1
elements – Alkali metals
Group 2 elements – Alkaline earth metals
Group 13 elements – Boron family
Group 14 elements – Carbon family
Group 15 elements – Nitrogen family
Group 16 elements – Oxygen family
Group 17 elements – Halogen family
Group 18 elements – Noble gases and Hydrogen
Transition Metals including Lanthanides
Electronic configuration: General characteristic properties,
oxidation states of transition metals. First row transition metals and general
properties of their compounds-oxides, halides and sulphides.
General properties of second and third row transition elements (Groupwise
Preparation, properties and uses of Potassium dichromate, Potassium
permaganate. Inner Transition Elements: General discussion with special
reference to oxidation states and eamthanide contraction.
Coordination Chemistry and Organo Metallics
Coordination compounds, Nomenclature : Isomerism in coordination
compounds; Bonding in coordination compounds, Werner’s coordination theory.
Nature of radiation from radioactive substances. Nuclear
reactions; Radioactive disintegration series; Artificial transmutation of
elements; Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion: Isotopes and their applications:
Synthetic and Natural Polymers
Classification of Polymers, natural and synthetic polymers (with
stress on their general methods of preparation) and important uses of the
Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon-66, terylene
Environmental pollution – pollutants – services – check and
Surfaces : Adsorption
Colloids – (Preparation and general properties), Emulsions, Micelles
Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous, structure of catalyst.
Bio Molecules and Biological Processes
Carbohydrates : Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
Amino Acides and Peptides – Structure and classification.
Proteins and Enzymes – Structure of Proteins, Role of enzymes.
Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA
Biological functions of Nucleic acids – Protein synthesis and replication
Lipids – Structure, membranes and their functions.
Chemistry in Action
Dyes, Chemicals and medicines
(antipyretic, analgesic, antibiotics & tranquilesers), Rocket propellants.
(Structural formulae non-evaluative)