(Syllabus) AIEEE - Subject Syllabus ( CHEMISTRY)

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UNIT 1 Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic
Measurement in chemistry (significant figures, SI unit, Dimensional analysis). Chemical classification of matter (mixtures, compounds and elements, and purification). Law of chemical combination and Dalton’s Atomic theory. Atomic Mass (mole concept, determination of chemical formulae). Chemical equation (balancing of chemical equation and calculations using chemical equations).

UNIT 2 Elements, their Occurrence and extraction
Earth as a source of elements, elements in biology, extraction of metals (mettallurgical process, production of concentrated ore, production of metals and their purification). Mineral wealth of India. Qualitative test of metals.

UNIT 3 States of Matter Gaseous state
(measurable properties of gases, Boyle’s Law, Charle’s Law and absolute scale of temperature, Avogadro’s hypothesis, ideal gas equation, Dalton’s law of partial pressure).

Kinetic molecular theory of gases (the microscopic model of gas, deviation form ideal behaviour).

The solid state (classification of solids, X-ray studies of crystal lattices and unit cells, packing of constituent particles in crystals). Liquid state (Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure, Surface tension, Viscosity).

UNIT 4 Atomic Structures Constituents of the atom
(Discovery of electron, Rutherford model of the atom).

Electronic structure of atoms (nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra, Bohr’s model of Hydrogen atom, Quantum mechanical model of the atom, electronic configurations of atoms, Aufbau principle).

Dual nature of matter and radiation. The uncertainty principle. Orbitals and Quantum numbers. Shapes of orbitals. Electronic configuration of atoms.

UNIT 5 Chemical Families – Periodic Properties
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, Modern Periodic Law, Types of elements (Representative elements-s & p block elements, inner transition elements – d-block elements, inner transition elements – f-block elements). Periodic trends in properties. (Ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radii, valence, periodicity in properties of compounds).

UNIT 6 Chemical Bonding and Molecular structure
Chemical bonds and Lewis structure shapes of molecules (VSEPR theory). Quantum theory of the covalent bond (Hydrogen and some other simple molecules, carbon compounds, hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds).

Coordinate covalent bond (Ionic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules. Bonding in solid state (Ionic, molecular and covalent solids, metals). Hydrogen bond, Resonance.

Molecules: Molecular orbital method. Formation of H2, O2, N2, F2 on the basis of MOT. Hybridisation, Dipole moment and structure of molecules.

UNIT 7 The Solid State
Structure of simple ionic compounds. Close-packed structures. Ionic-radii, Silicates (elementary ideas). Imperfection in solids (point defects only). Properties of solids, Amorphous solids.
The Gaseous state.
Ideal gas equation-Kinetic theory (fundamentals only)

UNIT 8 Solutions
Types of solutions, Vapour-pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law. Colligative properties. Non-ideal solutions and abnormal molecular masses. Mole concpt-stoichemistry, volumetric analysis-concentration unit.

UNIT 9 Chemical Energetics and Thermodynamics
Energy changes during a chemical reaction, Internal energy and Enthalpy (Internal energy, Enthalpy, Enthalpy changes, Origin of Enthalpy change in a reaction, Hess’s Law of constant heat summation, numericals based on these concepts). Heats of reactions (heat of neutralization, heat of combustion, heat of fusion and vaporization).

Sources of energy (conservation of energy sources and identification of alternative sources, pollution associated with consumption of fuels. The sun as the primary source).

First law of thermodynamics: Internal energy, Enthalpy, application of first law of thermodynamics.

Second law of thermodynamics : Entropy, Free energy, Spontaneity of a chemical reaction, free energy change and chemical equilibrium, free energy available for useful work.

UNIT 10 Chemical Equilibrium
Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas equilibrium involving dissolution of solid in liquids, gases in liquids, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes).

Equilibria involving chemical systems (the law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems).

Effect of changing conditions of systems at equilibrium (change of concentration, change of temperature, effect of catalyst-Le Chateliar’s principle).

Equilibria involving ions (ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acid-base equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH, solubility product, numericals based on these concepts).

UNIT 11 Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer process. Redox reactions in aqueous solutions-electrochemical cells. EMF of a galvanic cell. Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (nearest equation and numerical problems based on it). Electrolysis, Oxidation numbers (rules for assigning oxidation number, redox reactions in terms of oxidation number and nomenclature). Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations.

Electrolytic conduction. Voltaic cell, Electrode potential and Electromotive force, Gibb’s free energy and cell potential. Electrode potential and Electrolysis.

UNIT 12 Rates of Chemical Reactions and Chemical Kinetics
Rate of reaction, Instantaneous rate of reaction and order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions (factors affecting rate of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy, catalysis). Effect of light on rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex reactions. How fast are chemical reactions?

Rate expression. Order of a reaction (with suitable examples). Units of rates and specific rate constants. Order of reaction and effect of concentration. (study will be confined to first order only). Temperature dependence of rate constant – Fast reactions (only elementary idea). Mechanism of reaction (only elementary idea). Photochemical reactions.

UNIT 13 Chemistry of Hydrocarbons
Alkanes (structure, isomerism, conformation).
Stereo Isomerism and chirality (origin of chirality, optical rotation, racemic mixture)
Alkenes (isomerism including cis-trans).
Arenes (structure of benzene, resonance structure, isomerism in arenes).
Sources of hydrocarbons (origin and composition of coal and petroleum; Hydrocarbons from coal and petroleum cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline-octane number, gasoline additives).
Laboratory preparation of alkanes (preparation from unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkyl halides and carboxylic acids).
Laboratory preparation of alkenes (preparation from alcohols, alkyl halides).
Laboratory prepration of alkynes (preparation from calcium carbide and accetylene).
Physical properties of alkanes( boiling and melting points, solubility and density).
Reactions of hydrocarbons (oxidation, addition, substitution and miscellaneous reactions).

UNIT 14 Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds
Purification (crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, chromatography).
Qualitative analysis (analysis of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens).
Quantitative analysis (estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen).
Determination of molecular mass (Victor Mayer’s method, volumetric method).
Calculation of empirical formula and molecular formula.
Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of structure elucidation.

UNIT 15 Organic Chmistry Based on Functional Group-I
(Halides and Hydroxy compounds)
Nomenclature of compounds containing halogen atoms and hydroxyl groups : haloalkanes, haloarenes; alcohols and phenols.
Correlation of physical properties and uses.
Preparation, properties and uses of following :
Polyhalogen compounds : Chloroform, Idoform
Polyhydric compounds, Ethane 1, 2-diol; Propane-1,2,3 triol Structure and reactivity – (a) Induction effect, (b) Mesomeric effect, (c) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles, (d) Types of organic reaction.

UNIT 16 Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group II
(Ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives).

Nomenclature of ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives. (acylhalides, acid anhydrides, amides and esters).

General methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties and uses.

(Note : Specific compounds should not be stressed for the purpose of evaluation)

UNIT 17 Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group-III
(Cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and amines)
Nomenclature and classification of amines, cynadies, isocyanides, nitro compounds and their method of preparation; correlation of physical properties with structure, chemical reactions and uses.

UNIT 18 Chemistry of Non-metals – I
(Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen)
Hydrogen (position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, properties, reactions and uses)
Oxygen (occurrence, preparation, properties and reactions, uses, simple oxides; ozone)
Water and hydrogen peroxide (structure of water molecule and its aggregates, physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, water softening, hydrogen peroxides, preparation, properties, structure and uses).
Nitrogen(Preparation, properties, uses, compounds of Nitrogen – Ammonia, Oxides of Nitrogen, Nitric Acid – preparation, properties and uses).

UNIT 19 Chemistry of Non-metals – II
(Boron, Carbon, Silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, halogens and the noble gases)
Boron (occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties, borax and boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds).

Carbon, inorganic compounds of carbon (oxides, halides, carbides), elemental carbon.

Silicon (occurrence, preparation and properties, oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus, chemical fertililzers).

Sulphur (occurrence and extraction, properties and reactions, oxides: Sulphuric acid – preparation, properties and uses, sodium thiosulphate).

Halogens (occurrence, preparation, properties, hydrogen halides, uses of halogens).

Noble gases (discovery, occurrence and isolation, physical properties, chemistry of noble gases and their uses).

UNIT 20 Chemistry of lighter Metals
Sodium and Potassium (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, important compounds – NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCI, KOH).
Magnesium and calcium (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, important compounds MgCl2, MgSO4, CaO, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaSO4, plaster of paris).
Aluminium (occurrence, extraction, properties and uses, compounds – AlCl3, alums).
Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium.

UNIT 21 Heavy Metals
Iron (Occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron, oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and steel).
Copper, silver and gold (occurrence and extractions, properties and uses, compound – sulphides, halides and sulphates, photography).
Zinc and Mercury (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compound-oxides, halides; sulphides and sulphates).
Tin and Lead (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds – oxides, sulphides, halides).

UNIT 22 Chemistry of Representative Elements
Periodic properties – Trends in groups and periods (a) Oxides-nature (b) Halides-melting points (c) Carbonates and sulphates – solubility.
The chemistry of s and p block elements, electronic configuration, general characteristics properties and oxidation states of the following :- Group 1 elements – Alkali metals
Group 2 elements – Alkaline earth metals
Group 13 elements – Boron family
Group 14 elements – Carbon family
Group 15 elements – Nitrogen family
Group 16 elements – Oxygen family
Group 17 elements – Halogen family
Group 18 elements – Noble gases and Hydrogen

UNIT 23 Transition Metals including Lanthanides
Electronic configuration: General characteristic properties, oxidation states of transition metals. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds-oxides, halides and sulphides.
General properties of second and third row transition elements (Groupwise discussion).
Preparation, properties and uses of Potassium dichromate, Potassium permaganate. Inner Transition Elements: General discussion with special reference to oxidation states and eamthanide contraction.

UNIT 24 Coordination Chemistry and Organo Metallics
Coordination compounds, Nomenclature : Isomerism in coordination compounds; Bonding in coordination compounds, Werner’s coordination theory.

UNIT 25 Nuclear Chemistry
Nature of radiation from radioactive substances. Nuclear reactions; Radioactive disintegration series; Artificial transmutation of elements; Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion: Isotopes and their applications: Radio carbon-dating.

UNIT 26 Synthetic and Natural Polymers
Classification of Polymers, natural and synthetic polymers (with stress on their general methods of preparation) and important uses of the following :
Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon-66, terylene
Environmental pollution – pollutants – services – check and alternatives.

UNIT 27 Surface Chemistry
Surfaces : Adsorption
Colloids – (Preparation and general properties), Emulsions, Micelles
Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous, structure of catalyst.

UNIT 28 Bio Molecules and Biological Processes
The Cell
Carbohydrates : Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
Amino Acides and Peptides – Structure and classification.
Proteins and Enzymes – Structure of Proteins, Role of enzymes.
Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA
Biological functions of Nucleic acids – Protein synthesis and replication
Lipids – Structure, membranes and their functions.

UNIT 29 Chemistry in Action

Dyes, Chemicals and medicines (antipyretic, analgesic, antibiotics & tranquilesers), Rocket propellants. (Structural formulae non-evaluative)