Question Papers For Board Examinations 2019
Class – XII
Subject – Knowledge Traditions and Practices of India
Subject : Knowledge Traditions and Practices of India
Class : XII
Year : 2019
General Instructions :
- Please check that this question paper contains 15 printed pages.
- Code number given on the right hand side of the question paper should be written on the title page of the answer-book by the candidate.
- Please check that this question paper contains 5 questions.
- Please write down the Serial Number of the question before attempting it.
- 15 minute time has been allotted to read this question paper. The question paper will be distributed at 10.15 a.m. From 10.15 a.m. to 10.30 a.m., the students will read the question paper only and will not write any answer on the answer-book during this period.
(a) Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :
Mauryan architecture, which is inspired by Buddhist thought, is illustrated by the stūpas at Sanchi, the monolithic rail at Sarnath and the pillars of Bodh Gaya. Śunga architecture added decorations of stone vedikas (railings) and gateways surrounding the stūpa. Examples of these monuments are the stūpas at Sanchi (near Bhopal), Bharhut (Madhya Pradesh), and Amaravati on the Krishna River. At Bharhut the gateways are imitations in stone of the wooden portals of early Indian towns. Most prominent in the embellishment of the vedikas are the carvings of Yaksas and Yakasīs (supernatural beings). The great stūpa at Sanchi, whose foundation was originally laid by Aśoka, was enlarged under the patronage of the Andhra Dynasty. Architecture under the Kusānas produced relief friezes carved in dark schist and portrayed figures in classical poses with flowing Hellenistic draperies; it also made use of ivory and imported glass. The stūpa in Gandhara marks the gradual elaboration of the primitive types known at Sanchi and Bharhut.
In the Gupta age, the tradition of excavating cave temples and monolithic shrines evolved into the construction of brick and stone temples. This was due to two reasons. One reason was that while the architects and sculptors could create a cave temple only where boulders or hills were available, a structural stone temple could be created at any chosen site by baking bricks or quarrying and transporting stones. Secondly, there was more scope for architectural and sculptural innovation and experimentation while constructing a temple.
(i) What were stūpas made up of originally ?
(ii) List the characteristics of Kusāna architecture.
(iii) Give the examples of Mauryan architecture.
(iv) What led to evolution of monolithic shrines into the construction of stone temples ?
(v) How were stūpas in Sunga architecture different from the ones in Mauryan architecture ?
(b) Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :
Study of Language in India The study of language arose from the need to understand the knowledge texts such as the Rgveda. These texts have been transmitted orally from teacher to disciples for millennia. Though India had a scientific phonetic script, still knowledge was stored and transmitted orally. Six disciplines known as vedāngas developed to articulate and interpret texts : śiksā (phonetics), nirukta (etymology), vyākarana (grammar), chanda (prosody), kalpa (ritualistic performances) and jyotisa (astronomy). Out of these six disciplines, the first four pertain to language, its sounds, words and forms, etymology and metre. These four are today part of modern linguistics.
Three features of language are :
(1) It is primarily speech. Consider our words for language : bhāsā,vāk, vānī, bolī, etc. All assert that language is speech (writing is secondary as it represents speech).
(2) It is the means of thought — thinking is not possible without language.
(3) It constructs for each of us things, experiences, emotions and ideas by naming them. With these we know things that are not present physically. Someone utters the word ‘cow’ and we see in our mind the picture of a particular animal and can describe it at length.
(i) List the disciplines developed to articulate and interpret texts.
(ii) What are the features of language ?
(iii) Why was there a need to study language ?
(iv) What are the primary words for language ? What does it prove ?
(v) Which old disciplines of language are part of modern linguistics today ?