(Syllabus) Detailed Syllabus Class XII GEOGRAPHY 2008

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Detailed Syllabus Class XII GEOGRAPHY - 2008



One Theory Paper 3 Hours 70 Marks



A. Fundamental of Human Geography (35 Marks)

Unit 1: Human Geography   (3)

Unit 2: People (5)

Unit 3: Human Activities (10)

Unit 4: Transport, communication & Trade (10)

Unit 5: Human settlements (5)

Unit 6: Map Work (2)


B. India: People and Economy (35 Marks)

Unit 7: People (5)

Unit 8: Human Settlements (4)

Unit 9: Resources and Development (12)        

Unit 10: Transport, Communication and International Trade (7)

Unit 11: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems (4)

Unit 12: Map Work (3)


C. Practical Work                                                                  30 Marks

Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping (20)

Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology (10)



A. Fundamentals of Human Geography (70 Periods) 35 Marks

Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope 3 Periods

Unit 2: People 15 Periods

 Population of the world — distribution, density and growth

 Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;

 Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;

 Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3: Human Activities 25 Periods

 Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities - some examples from selected countries;

Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: agro-processing, household, small scale, large scale; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries;

Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and communication; services; peopleengaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries

Quaternary activities-concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged inquaternary activities - some examples from selected countries


Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade (Periods 19)

 Land transport - roads, railways - rail network; trans-continental railways;

 Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes;

 Air Transport- Intercontinental air routes;

 Oil and gas pipelines;

 Satellite communication and cyber space

 International trade-Basis and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.


Unit 5: Human Settlements (Periods 8)

 Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Unit 6: Map Work on outline Political map of World- 2 Marks

identification only

B. India: People and Economy 70 Periods

Unit 7: People (Periods 12)

 Population distribution, density and growth; composition of population; linguistic and religious; rural-urban population; change through time-regional variations; occupation;

 Migration: international, national-causes and consequences;

 Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns;

 Population, environment and development.


Unit 8: Human Settlements (Periods 8)

 Rural settlements - types and distribution;

 Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.


Unit 9: Resources and Development (Periods 28)

 Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use-major crops; agricultural development and problems; Distribution of Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugar cane and Rubber).

Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be introduced).

 Mineral and energy resources-metallic (Ironore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese) and non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals and their distribution; conventional (Coal, Petroleum Natural gas and Hydro electricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas).

 Industries - types and distribution; industrial location and clustering; changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalization on industrial location;

Planning in India- target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)


Unit 10: Transport, Communication and International Trade (Periods 12)

 Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; national electric grids; communication networkings - radio, television, satellite and internet;

 International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports,


Unit 11: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems (One case study to be introduced for each topic) (Periods 10)

Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.

 Urbanisation-rural-urban migration; problem of slum.

 Land Degradation.


Unit 12: Map work on outline political map of India for locating and labelling 3 Marks


Courtesy : CBSE , NEW DELHI