(Download) CBSE Class-12 Marking Scheme (Political Science)
TIME: 3 hrs
1. No. NAM is not neutrality because neutrality means
staying out of wars whereas NAM countries were involved in wars but at the same
time promoted world peace. Neutrality does not aim at ending wars.
2. i. Sovereignty
ii. Territorial independence
3. Partition of India into two nation states i.e, India and
5. Yes, it was a woman’s movement because it was spearheaded
by women and it focused on issues like dowry, domestic violence etc.
6. SAARC stands for South Asian Association for Regional
Cooperation (1985).It is a major regional initiative by the South Asian counties
to evolve cooperation through multilateral means.
7. i. Jeans culture
ii. Pepsi, McDonald’s.
8. i. International organizations are helpful in finding
peaceful solutions of a dispute between countries
ii. They are helpful in tackling issues like disease, global warming etc.
for which everyone needs to work together.
9. i. Military conflict with neighbouring countries .
ii. Internal military conflicts for e.g . Separatist movements
10. i. coming together of all the opposition parties at one
platform to defeat Indira Gandhi.
ii. excesses committed by the government during emergency, the non-democratic
character of its rule.
11. As a part of its ‘Global War On Terror’, US launched
‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ in 2001 against all those suspected to be behind
9/11 attack, mainly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.
12. i. Open door policy and economic reforms.
ii. Four modernizations (agriculture, industry, science and technology,
military) in 1973 by Zhou Enlai.
iii. Elimination of trade barriers in SEZs.
iv. Ended its political and economic isolation.
13. Environment concern is a very serious issue because of
the following facts:
i. cultivable area throughout the world is decreasing and losing in
ii. water bodies due to pollution
iii. rapid decline in the total amount of ozone in the earth’s stratosphere.
iv. global coastal pollution has increased due to land based activities.
14. i. areas of Muslim majority were not clearly delineated.
As a compromise, Pakistan was to have two zones: west and east separated by a
long expanse of Indian territory.
ii. opposition to the two-nation theory within Muslim areas e.g. opposition by
Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan.
iii. bifurcation of certain areas like Punjab and Bengal difficult, very
iv. problem of minorities on both sides; minorities had to leave at short
notice, scenes of violence.
15. The defeat of Indian National Congress in the Lok Sabha
Elections of 1977.The elections turned into a referendum on the experience of
the emergency. The impact was severely felt in north India. This election was
out and out contest between the supporters and opponents of emergency. The Janta
Party embraced a landslide victory and congress lost in almost every
constituency in northern states.