CLAT 2008-2012: Solutions to the Logical Reasoning Section
151. b. 1/10th of 50 applicants is 5 students scored in the range of 90-95%. Out of the remaining
3/5th i.e. 3/5x45 = 27 students were in the range of 75-90% which means 32 students out of 50 i.e. 64% students scored equal or above 75. So 90% students can’t be admitted into the Physics course. This eliminates option (a). Also the other condition to seek admission into the Physics course is to opt for Maths course. So Physics students cannot outnumber the Maths students. This eliminates option (c). And lastly to opt for the Maths course a student needs a score of atleast 70% and 75% for Physics, so option (d) is also eliminated.
152. d. Option (a) is inconsistent with the 1st restriction. Option (b) doesn’t have a minimum requirement of 2 places under the business trip and option (c) is inconsistent with the last restriction.
153. a. Only Option (a) is consistent with all the restrictions. So it is the most certain option.
154. c. Options (a), (b) and (d) are inconsistent with the 3rd restriction.
155. a –the chaos and turmoil has been blamed on poor govt policies. So rather than making more rules we need to execute the existing. Options b and d are very extreme whereas c gives a solution which is unrelated in this context
156. b – b is suggestive of a strong force required to execute any economic policy which strengthens the argument
157. b- “a” is the least obvious as we cannot stop functioning at all to curb problems, “c” and “d”
are very extreme. “b” suggests a middle path
158. b – after corruptibility one premise is missing which joins corruptibility with immortality.
159. d- to weaken we need to prove that the soul is dissolute and hence mortal, it may not be material but could be affected by motion and hence mortality.
160. b- the central thrust of this paragraph is whether or not capital punishment should be given and its consequences. Hence we remove the option about man’s rights and priveleges because it is just one right we discuss primarily with respect to punishment, “c” is removed as well as we are not talking about doing away with crime. And “d” too as there is no mention about revenge.
161. b- the original premise as per the earlier study is temperature of venus. The premise of Fred
Whipple is the slow rotation, the point on frequency of rotation of Venus is an inference.
162. d-the entire paragraph talks of readings taken and analysed.
163. c- the proving is done by a test the results of which are observed.
164. c- since nothing is proven and only hypotheses are available it would be speculation
169. c- since Bohr says that we can never know ……………. But we can know the properties of the other it shows humans have or can have limited knowledge.
170. b- the problem is of unemployment and cash flows which can be handled by creating alternate work
172. d – Lincoln and Socrates differ in their perspectives of the same issue
173. a– all the other three are pro environment just as the author whereas a puts the interest of humans first
174. b. Fall-out is the result/consequence of the author’s argument which in this case is that the object behind reservation is defeated if a poor teacher fails to contribute towards the upliftment of the downtrodden.
Questions 156- 165 are knowledge based.
An Assumption is implicit when it explains unexplained facts in a proposition. And an assumption is definitely true if the argument is true
166. a. After the operation if the patient recovers it means there was a potential for the operation to happen
167. b. Detergent should be used has it implicit that it would clean clothes. I is not implicit as it uses a new term lather and compares (more) but there is nothing to compare with
169. b. Any advertisement claim has it implicit that the claim would be desirable
170. b. We cannot say that it is the ‘only’ as it may be the best and not only. Indispensable suggests that people enjoy films
171. d. None are implicit.
172. a. ‘never before was such a lucid……..,’ this comparison suggests that some books have been written on the topic. But it does not suggest that lucid books are limited in topics
173. b. We cannot talk about all companies. But since the company is being asked to meet their lawyer means the lawyer is equipped.
174. a. The latter part of the argument suggests that education is required for the well being of the country. But that alone is required has not been suggested.
175. a. I is another way of saying the argument hence can qualify as an assumption.
Questions 181 – 190 require identification of the relationship between the given pair and replication
191. b. I is talking about other industries which is not relevant. II tackles the problem
192. a. First this action should be taken before anything else
193. b. Asking the employees for a restructuring is not required as it would be a company policy. Hence taking experienced help would add value.
194. a. A study of the other products needs to be made to see what has gone wrong
195. b. The matter needs to addressed and not transferred elsewhere
196. d. None are strong as it is not just about money as is given in option I and neither about effectiveness
197. d. Yes education should be free but only for the needy and calling it as the only way is extreme.
199. d. None of the mentioned arguments are strong.
200. d. Argument I is extreme and so is II.
140. a. A black sheep is a member of a family or other group who is considered undesirable or disreputable.
Qs 141-145 are in the Legal Section under the Legal Aptitude tab
146. a. The code for Ram and “mar” from Kumar should be matched in all options given. Only in option (a), they are consistent. Code of Ram is Ten i.e. R = T, A = E and M = N and “mar” is also coded in accordance as “net”. So Option (a) is correct.
147. d. It is the only even number.
148. d. Spinach is the only leafy vegetable.
149. c. A Hypothecation refers to a movable property, whereas a mortgage generally refers to an immovable property.
151. d. Not a fundamental right.
152. a. The problem of child labour is pervasive and the solution is not banning an industry but putting more stringent laws against child labour.
153. b. The question is to allow them or not. They should be allowed and it’s upto the parties interested to take it up or not or how they would perceive the losses/profits.
155. d. I is extreme and relief is very subjective so II is also not a strong argument.
156. b. II explains why I is not a strong argument.
157. b. Anand > Gulab > Pramesh > Jairam > Mohan
159. c. From CABLE, ABLE is coded as CDAY. Therefore, option (c). There’s no need to code- decode every option here.
160. d. This one too can be worked with options. From CHARTER to UMOEPYE; R is coded as E, T as P and A as O. Only option (d) satisfies all of the above.
176. a. Assumptions I and II are elaborating the key points in the statement and both are imperative for the statement to be true
178. d. Both of them are not necessary. Assumption I because it does not has to be necessarily true and II because we cannot say for sure that the employer would recruit only if in his opinion the candidate is eligible. There could be other factors. So II is also not necessary.
179. a. Assumption I is strong enough.
180. d. It may be desirable to win over new friends but not necessary. So I is not necessary. II is more of a conclusion.
111. a. Applying if then conditional, option a will be false since ‘No fire’ ‘no smoke’.
112. b. Again, applying the if then conditional, option ‘b’ is false, if Bhutan is a poor country, it ought to have thieves, if x then y.
116. d. None of the options follow.
117. c. After B, D comes; one alphabet is skipped. Then G comes; 2 are skipped. Between K and
P 4 alphabets are skipped, therefore after P, 5 will be skipped and V would come.
118. d. The sequence shows the alphabets which come at prime numbers while writing them in an alphabetical order. B=2, C=3, E=5, and so on. S is 19 and the next prime no. is 23 so the next alphabet is W. Hence option (d).
119. b. Z is 26; X is 24; T is 20 and N is 14 (alphabetical order); we observe that the difference between two numbers is increasing by 2 with every consecutive pair; 26-24=2; 24-20=4; 20-
14=6 and so the next letter should be the one that comes at 6 so that the difference is 8 (14-6=8)
and is consistent with the sequence. It is F.
120. c. Apple and Application form a pair where the first four letters are the same; similarly Apricot and April form a pair and have the first four letters same so Approval will form a pair only with Appropriate to remain consistent.
121. a. The difference between 2 consecutive days in the sequence starts with 0 (Sunday and Monday) and keeps on increasing by 1. The difference between the last pair, Monday and Sunday, is 5. Therefore the next day should be 6 days apart from Sunday which is Sunday.
123. b. All the other words do not have a vowel in them.
124. b. The first 2 letters in each word in the sequence are vowels A, E, I, O, so the fifth word has to start with double U.
125. a. The higher literacy rate in China is attributed to greater efficiency of the Communist system and the lesser literacy in India is attributed to the lack of efficiency in the democratic system. Among the given options, option (a) disproves the efficiency aspect
126. b. Between options b & c, 'b' is best, since it directly denies Socrates' premise X "meant" Y
by stating that X does NOT by itself mean Y. Socrates' argument was ' he
had lived in Athens for so many years meant that he had committed himself to obeying its laws. It would therefore be wrong for him to break those very laws he was implicitly committed to obeying' & option 'b' talks about long residence & importance of explicit commitment instead of an implicit one, thus challenging the argument.
Option c is too vague, especially in comparison with b
127. a. Argument: Government would be justified in banning soft drinks because they are bad for the teeth. (a) is correct; & yes,(c) can be eliminated because the argument is premised
on soft drinks being 'bad' for teeth, not on soft drinks being unhygienic. (In fact they're perfectly hygienic, there's nothing dirty about them; it's just that the sugar in them is corrosive & promotes
decay; not brushing or flossing regularly on the other hand causes poor oral hygiene, which also promotes decay. So(c) is tangential (though related), while (a) is a directly applicable assumption.
128. c. Older than 25 years and not being bankrupt are the two criteria for being eligible for election to Lok Sabha. Jatinder Singh fulfills the criterion related to age but does not fulfill the one related to bankruptcy. So he is not eligible for election to Lok Sabha. As the conclusion says that he cannot be elected as the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, this means that the author has
assumed that one who is not eligible for election to the Lok Sabha is also not eligible for being the Speaker of Lok Sabha. Thus, option (c) is correct.
129. a. The passage states that the behaviour of people at the end of the century is similar to the behaviour of people that are at the end of their lives. Just as those who are at the end of their lives start reflecting on the past events of their lives similarly, those who are alive in 1999 (i.e. those who are at the end of the century) will reflect on the events of the century (twentieth). Thus, option (a) is the logically correct choice.
130. a. Lucretius demonstrated this.
131. b. Utilitarians believe that the action that produces maximum happiness is the right action. Option (b) states that one should do one’s duty without giving any consideration to the consequences (happiness or misery). Thus, option (b) is incompatible with the belief of Utilitarians.
132. b. Senthil draws his conclusion about the entire Ambala city on the basis of a limited and insufficient data. He had only seen the route from railway station to hotel sand not the entire city
133. b. Since Europe "resolved" its problems after centuries, implies that it
was trying to resolve its problems, i.e. it was gradually albeit very slowly moving towards stability. (a) can be taken as false: countries everywhere need not follow Europe's example, even if India might still be one such country that should
134. c. It is an opinion.
135. c. “less pleasant to live in” is subjective and is an opinion.
140. d. The argument states the models and theories of economics (that are based on mathematical formulae) are too idealistic and far from real and practical. Option (d) summarizes the argument effectively.
143. b. By talking about mountain passes and Gangetic plain the author has based his argument on this. (c) is seemingly close but is too extreme to be the correct option.
144. b. The passage says “religion avoids mountain passes” and gives an example of Buddhism to support its argument. But (b) gives a contradictory fact about another religion and thus weakens the argument.
145. b. The conclusion of the argument is mentioned in its last lines “That is, friendship
connoted intimacy in England while in Rural India, brotherhood conveyed intimacy.” Therefore, the attitude of people of England towards brotherhood and friendship is different from that of rural India
146. c. The argument concludes that “friendship connotes intimacy in England”. Option (c) which states that ‘people in England do not think that friendship connotes intimacy’ contradicts the argument.
147. b. The argument discusses the importance of social context in making learning a language easier and effective. Option (b) summarizes the argument effectively.
148. d. All of the given statements present facts that contradict the given argument and thus weaken it
149. b. The argument talks about the goodness/richness of tribal culture and the lack of need to dilute the richness of these cultures. The conclusions implied in the argument are: 1. Following/developing their own culture is good for tribes as well as for the country. 2. Tribal cultures do contribute to the diversity of the Indian culture. 3. Forceful adoption of another culture by tribal people would reduce their cultural distinctness and diversity.
Option (b) which states “Tribal customs should not be allowed to change in any respect” takes the argument too far and is not implied in the passage.
150. d. The argument talks about the goodness/richness of tribal culture and the lack of need to dilute the richness of these cultures. Option (d) which states “The tribes should assimilate as far
as possible into non-tribal culture as a condition of full citizenship” contradicts the spirit as well as the essence of the passage.
151. c. The argument does not mention the conditions that demand the tribal people to be flexible and change some of their customs. Moreover, the idea of modern medicines is beyond the scope of the passage. Thus, option (c) is not an assumption implicit in the argument.
152. b. The passage itself states that in India, the states governed by the Communist party respect human rights. Option (b) contradicts this by stating that communist states never respect human rights. Thus, option (b) is not a conclusion implicit in the passage.
153. a. The argument states that the concept of human rights enshrined in the constitution of India is the reason behind the Communist party’s respect for human rights (in India). Option (a) weakens the argument by stating that the communist governments are not motivated by the principles of the constitution (of India). Instead they are motivated by their own Communist principle.
155. c. Since it contradicts the main premiss "If poverty continues...democracy ceases to be a liberating force". (a) can be eliminated because the part of the argument it pertains to, is only
a paraphrasing of the main argument itself ("in other words...) & also because the 'inseparability' of PD & ED does not necessarily mean that they DO co-exist; it could also be meant that they OUGHT TO co-exist; i.e. meant DeJure i.e as a conceptually desirable thing (thereby strengthening the argument) rather than as De facto i.e. factual & actual & already the case.
121. d. All the rest are opposites. This pair is synonymous
122. c. All the rest are a part of the whole. This pair is unrelated
123. b. The rest are pairs of hostile animals
124. d. If all girls are students and all doctors are students then some students will be girls and some doctors. There is no necessary overlap between girls and doctors.
125. b. Same logic as above if all researchers are sociologists then some sociologists will be researchers and some researchers will be professors and vice – versa
126. b. Both 1V and II are right but there is no such option. If no dictatorship is a monarch then some democracy will definitely not be a monarchy.
127. d. Cheese is bad for people with high cholesterol but it is not necessary they don’t eat it. They may still eat it and summet’s not eating could be anything from not liking it to having cholesterol.
129. a. the two right answers are; there is cloud there is rain and there is no rain hence no cloud. There may be rain without cloud but the false statement would be that there is cloud but no rain, that is opposing it straightaway or negating the necessary clause.
For Questions 130-132: The students are good in the subjects given alongside in blue and poor in the ones in red.
Hindi: W and X (English)
Science: W and Y (Mathematics)
English: Y and Z (Social Studies)
Mathematics & Science: Z and X
130. a; 131. c; 132. b
134. a. If a person has done creative work he can become a critic but it is not necessary or stated that only persons with creative work can be critics, hence z can be a critic.
a) Not the credited response.
The point of contention is not the comparison of popularity between Yoga and high energy workouts but mere data on Yoga.
b) A distractor. Concept of fitness may or may not be changing, the point of contention is only choosing yoga depending upon the requirement/ personal choice.
c) The credited response, point of contention addressed. d) A distractor. May or may not be. Irrelevant.
a) Not the credited response. Can’t say that, nowhere has the comparison between words and numbers has been made.
b) A distractor. Relevance of statistics and the drawbacks have been explained however no mention of studying that discipline or any other discipline can’t be made. Irrelevant.
c) A distractor. Irrelevant.
d) The credited response. The point of contention how even though the numbers maybe important yet maybe misleading can be best brought out in this option.
Option c, credited response, for all obvious reasons.
140. c. because of reduction prices have gone down
141. c. because there is less money in the economy now after RBI has increased interest, inflation has gone down
143. c. because of warming the ice is melting hence sea levels are rising
146. a. Argument I is strong as the judiciary keeps a tab on the executive
147. a. Argument I is strong.
148. a. e – governance will make the systems transparent and lead to efficiency
150. a. Yes in light of the statement where some things are inherent need to be protected though may not be valid or explained by law.