All India PMT/PDT Entrance Examination 2011
AIPMT 2011: CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS
Unit : 1 Some basic concepts in Chemistry
Importance of Chemistry, physical quantities and their
measurement in Chemistry, SI Units, uncertainty in measurements and use of
significant figures, Unit and dimensional analysis, Matter and its nature, laws
of chemical combinations, atomic, and molecular, masses mole concept, molar
masses, percentage composition and molecular formula, chemical stoichiometry.
Unit : 2 States of matter
Three states of matter, gaseous state, gas laws (Boyle’s
Law and Charles Law), Avogadro’s Law, Grahams’Law of diffusion, Dalton’s law of
partial pressure, ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases, real gases and
deviation from ideal behaviour, van der Waals’ equation, liquefaction of gases
and critical points, Intermolecular forces; liquids and solids.
Unit : 3 Atomic structure
Earlier atomic models (Thomson’s and Rutherford) , emission
spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr’s model, of hydrogen atom, Limitations of Bohr’s
model, dual nature of matter and radiation, Heisenberg uncertainty principle,
quantum mechanical model of atom (quantum designation of atomic orbitals and
electron energy in terms of principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum
numbers), electronic spin and spin quantum numbers, Pauli’s exclusion principle,
general idea of screening (constants) of outer electrons by inner electrons in
an atom, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, atomic orbitals and their pictorial
representation, electronic configurations of elements.
Unit : 4 Classification of elements and periodicity in properties
Need and genesis of classification of elements (from
Doebereiner to Mendeleev), Modern periodic law and present form of periodic
table, Nomenclature of elements with atomic number > 100, electronic
configurations of elements and periodic table, electronic configuration and
types of elements and s, p, d and f blocks, periodic trends in properties of
elements (atomic size, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence/
oxidation states and chemical reactivity).
Unit : 5 Chemical energetics
Some basic concepts in thermodynamics, first law of
thermodynamics, heat capacity, measurement of DU and DH, calorimetry, standard
enthalpy changes, thermochemical equations, enthalpy changes during phase
transformations, Hess’s Law, standard enthalpies of formation, bond enthalpies
and calculations based on them.
Unit : 6 Chemical bonding
Kossel -Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, ionic
bonds, covalent bonds, polarity of bonds and concept of electronegativity,
valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory , shapes of simple molecules, valence bond theory, hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and
shapes of molecules s and p bonds; Molecular orbital theory involving
homounclear diatomic molecules; Hydrogen-bonding.
Unit : 7 Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic
equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constant, homogeneous
equilibrium, heterogenous equilibrium, application of equilibrium constants,
Relationship between reaction quotient Q, equilibrium constant, K and Gibbs’
energy G; factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chateliar’s principle.
Acids, Bases and Salts and their ionization, weak and
strong electrolytes degree of ionization and ionization constants, concept of
pH, ionic product of water, buffer solution, common ion effect, solubility of
sparingly soluble salts and solubility products.
Unit : 8 Redox reactions
Electronic concepts of reduction - oxidation, redox
reactions, oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Unit : 9 Solid state Chemistry
Classification of solids based on different binding forces:
molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline
solids; unit cells in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices,
calculation of density of a unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms
per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic
Unit : 10 Chemical thermodynamics
Spontaneous processes, energy and spontaneity , entropy and
second law of thermodynamics, concept of absolute entropy, Gibbs energy and
spontaneity, Gibbs energy change and equilibrium constant.
Unit : 11 Solutions
Types of solutions, different units for expressing
concentration of solution, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both),
definitions of dilute solutions, vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law,
Colligative properties, lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing
point, elevation of boiling points and osmotic pressure, determination of
molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal values of molecular
masses, van’t Hoff factor. simple numerical problems.
Unit : 12 Chemical kinetics
Rate of chemical reactions, factors, affecting rates of
reactions –concentration, temperature and catalyst, order and molecularity of
reactions, rate law and rate constant, differential and integral forms of first
order reaction, half-life (only zero and first order) characteristics of first
order reaction, effect of temperature on reactions, Arrhenius theory -
activation energy, collision theory of reaction rate (no derivation).
Unit : 13 Electrochemistry
Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar
conductivity, variation of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s law,
electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), electrolytic and
galvanic cells, emf. of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation,
concentration cell, fuel cells, cell potential and Gibbs energy, dry cell and
Unit : 14 Surface chemistry
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors
affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogeneous and
heterogeneous activity and selectivity, enzyme catalysis, colloidal state,
distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic,
lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids, properties of colloids,
Tyndal effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsions - type
Unit :15 Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes of
hydrogen, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions and structures;
hydrides and their classification.
Unit :16 s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth metals):
Group 1 and Group 2 elements
Electronic configurations and general trends in physical
and chemical properties, anomalous properties of the first element of each
group, diagonal relationship.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds,
sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, sodium hydrogen carbonate and industrial
uses of lime and limestone, biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
Unit :17 General principles and processes of isolation of elements
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration,
reduction, (chemical and electrolytic methods), and refining.
Occurrence and principles of extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and
Unit :18 p-Block Elements
Introduction to p-block elements
Electronic configurations and general trends in properties,
viz. atomic sizes, ionization enthalpies, electronegativity values, electron
gain enthalpies and oxidation states across the periods and down the groups in
Unique behaviour of the top element in each group of the
block - the covalency limit and the pp-
pp overlap in some molecules
(e.g. N2, O2)
and its consequences; general trend in catenation tendency down each group.
Group-wise study of the p-block Elements
Group 13 - In addition to the general characteristics as
outlined above, properties and uses of aluminium, nature of hydrides/ halides
and oxides; Properties, structures and uses of diborane boron halides, aluminium
chloride, borax, boric acid and alums.
Group 14 - In addition to the general characteristics;
carbon – catenation, allotropic forms (diamond and graphite), properties and
structures of oxides; silicon - silicon tetrachloride, and structures and uses
of silicates, silicones and zeolites.
Group 15 - In addition to the general characteristics, the
general trends in the nature and structures of hydrides, halides and oxides of
these elements. Preparation and properties of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine
and halides of phosphorus, structures of the oxoacids of phosphorus.
Group 16 - In addition to the general characteristics,
preparations, properties and uses of dioxygen, simple oxides, ozone; sulphur -
allotropic forms, compounds of sulphur, preparation, properties and uses of
sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid, industrial preparations of sulphuric acid,
structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group 17 - In addition to the general characteristics,
occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, oxides and oxoacids of
halogens (structures only), preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and
hydrochloric acid, trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides. Interhalogen
compounds (structures only).
Group 18 - General introduction, electronic configurations,
occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties and uses, - fluorides and
oxides of xenon (structures only).
Unit :19 The d-and f-Block elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence
and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the
first row transition metals –physical properties, ionization enthalpy,
oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic property,
interstitial compounds, alloy formation; preparations and properties of K2Cr2O7and
Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation
states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
Unit :20 Coordination compounds
Introduction to ligands, coordination number, colour,
magnetic properties, and shapes; IUPAC - nomenclature of mononuclear
coordination compounds, isomerism , bonding-valence bond approach to the
bonding and basic ideas of Crystal Field Theory, colour and magnetic
properties. Elementary ideas of metal - carbon bonds and organometallic
compounds, importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis,
extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit :21 Some basic principles of Organic Chemistry
- Tetravalence of carbon, hybridization ( s and p ), shapes of simple
molecules, functional groups:-C=C-, -CC-and those containing halogens, oxygen,
nitrogen and sulphur; homologous series, isomerism.
- General introduction to naming organic compounds-trivial names and IUPAC
- Electronic displacement in a covalent bond; inductive effect,
electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Fission of
covalent bond: free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles, carbocations and
- Common types of organic reactions: substitution, addition, elimination
and rearrangement reactions.
Unit :22 Hydrocarbons
Alkanes and cycloalkanes : classification of hydrocarbons,
alkanes and cycloalkanes, nomenclature and conformations of alkanes and
Alkenes and alkynes :
Nomenclature and isomerism, general methods of preparation, properties (physical
and chemical), mechanism of electrophilic addition, Markownikoff’s rule,
peroxide effect, acidic character of alkynes, polymerisation reactions.
Aromatic hydrocarbons :
Benzene and its homologues, nomenclature, sources of aromatic hydrocarbons (coal
and petroleum), structure of benzene, chemical reaction of benzene-mechanism of
electrophilic substitution. Directive influence of substituents and their effect
Petroleum and petrochemicals : Composition of crude oil
fractionation and uses, quality of gasoline, LPG, CNG, cracking and reforming,
Unit :23 Purification and characterization of carbon compounds
- Purification of carbon compounds : filtration, crystallisation,
sublimation, distillation chromatography,
- Qualitative analysis : detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and
- Quantitative analysis : estimation of different elements (H, N, halogens,
S and P)
- Determination of molecular masses : Silver salt method, chloroplatinate
salt method, calculations of empirical and molecular formulas.
Unit :24 Organic compounds with functional groups containing halogens (X)
- Nature of C-X bond in haloalkanes and haloarenes, nomenclature, physical
and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, reactivity of C-X
bond in haloalkanes and haloarenes.
- Some commercially important compounds : dichloro, trichloro and
tetrachloromethanes; p-dichlorobenzene, freons, BHC, DDT, their uses and
Unit :25 Organic compounds with functional groups containing oxygen
Alcohols and phenols : Nomenclature, methods of
preparation, physical and chemical properties; chemical reactivity of phenols in
electrophilic substitutions, acidic nature of phenol, ethers: electronic
structure, structure of functional group, nomenclature, important methods of
preparation, physical and chemical properties, some commercially important
Aldehydes and ketones : Electronic structure of carbonyl
group, nomenclature, important methods of preparation, physical properties and
chemical reactions, relative reactivity of aldehydic and ketonic groups,
acidity of a-hydrogen, aldol condensation. Connizzarro reaction, nucleophilic
addition reaction to >C=O groups.
Carboxylic acids : Electronic structure of-COOH,
Nomenclature, important methods of preparation, physical properties and effect
of substituents on a-carbon on acid strength, chemical reactions.
Derivatives of carboxylic acids : Electronic structure of
acid chloride, acid anhydride, ester and amide groups, nomenclature, important
methods of preparation, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives. Some
commercially important compounds.
Unit :26 Organic Compounds with functional group containing nitrogen
- Structure, nomenclature of nitro, amino, cyano and diazo compounds.
- Nitro compounds – important methods of preparation, physical properties
and chemical reactions.
- Amines : primary, secondary and tertiary amines, a general awareness,
important methods of preparation, physical properties, basic character of
amines, chemical reactions.
- Cyanides and isocyanides : preparation, physical properties and chemical
- Diazonium salts : Preparation, chemical reaction and uses of benzene
diazonium chloride. Some commercially important nitrogen containg carbon
compounds, (aniline, TNT)
Unit :27 Polymers
Classification of polymers, general methods of
polymerization-addition and condensation: addition-free radical, cationic,
anionic polymerization, copolymerisation, natural rubber, vulcanization of
rubber, synthetic rubbers, condensation polymers, idea of macromolecules,
Some commercially important polymers (PVC, teflon,
polystyrene, nylon-6 and 66, terylene and bakelite).
Unit :28 Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollutions,
chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants,
acid-rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, green
house effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes, green
chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for
controlling environmental pollution.
Unit :29 Biomolecules
Carbohydrates : Classification, aldose and ketose,
monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose,
maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); important simple
chemical reactions of glucose, elementary idea of structure of pentose and
Proteins : Elementary idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond,
polypeptides, proteins; primary, secondary and tertiary structure of proteins
and quaternary structure (gualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins,
Vitamins : Classification and functions
Nucleic acids : Chemical composition of DNA and RNA
Lipids : Classification and structure
Hormones : Classification and functions in biosystem.
Unit :30 Chemistry in everyday life
- Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics,
disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antacids, antihistamins.
- Chemicals in food – preservativess, artificial sweetening agents.
- Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
- Rocket propellants : characteristics and chemicals used.