Question Papers For Board Examinations 2019
Class – XII
Subject – English (Core)
Subject :- English (Core)
Class : XII
Year : 2019
General Instructions :
(i) This paper is divided into three Sections : A, B and C. All the sections are compulsory.
(ii) Separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary. Read these instructions very carefully and follow them faithfully.
(iii) Do not exceed the prescribed word limit while answering the questions.
SECTION – A
1. Read the passage given below : 20
1. All of Earth’s oceans share one thing in common: plastic pollution. Discarded plastic bags, cups, and bottles make their way into the sea. Today, it seems that no part of the ocean is safe from plastic trash. In recent years, oceanographers have searched in vain for a pristine marine environment. They have found plastic everywhere they have looked. “It is a common global problem, we can’t point to a single habitat or location with no plastic.”
2. Plastic harms wildlife and introduces dangerous chemicals into marine ecosystems — communities of organisms interacting with their surroundings. Once plastic enters the environment, it lasts a long time. Scientists are working to prevent plastic pollution from entering the sea.
3. When people litter, or when trash is not properly disposed of, things like plastic bags, bottles, straws, foam beverage cups get carried to the sea by winds and waterways. About 80 percent of ocean plastic originates on land. The rest comes from marine industries such as shipping and fishing.
4. In 2015, engineer Jenna Jambeck at the University of Georgia and other esearchers calculated that at least 8 million tons of plastic trash is swept into the ocean from coasts every year. That’s the equivalent of a full garbage truck of lastic being dumped into the sea every minute. If current trends in plastic production and disposal continue, that figure will double by 2025. A report published by the World Economic Forum last year predicts that by 2050, ocean plastic will outweigh all the fish in the sea.
5. In today’s world, plastic is everywhere. It’s found in shoes, clothing, household items, electronics, and more. There are different types of plastics, but one thing they all have in common is that they’re made of polymers – large molecules made up of repeating units. Their chemical structure gives them a lot of advantages : they’re cheap and easy to manufacture, lightweight, water-resistant, durable, and can be moulded into nearly any shape.
6. Unfortunately, some of the properties that make plastics great for consumer goods also make them a problem pollutant. Plastic’s durability comes in part from the fact that unlike paper or wood, it doesn’t biodegrade, or break down naturally. Instead it just fragments, or breaks into tiny pieces over time. These tiny pieces, known as microplastic, can potentially stick around for hundreds or perhaps even thousands of years.
7. Another problem with plastics is the other chemicals they contain, like dyes and flame retardants. When plastic isn’t disposed of properly, these additives end up in the environment. Plastic also tends to absorb harmful chemicals from its surroundings. “It’s like a sponge for persistent organic pollutants.” These longlasting, toxic substances include pesticides and industrial chemicals. If plastic absorbs the chemicals, and marine organisms eat the plastic, they may be exposed to higher concentrations of these contaminants.
8. One of the biggest impacts of plastic pollution is its effect on sea life. Seals, sea turtles, and even whales can become entangled in plastic netting. They can starve to death if the plastic restricts their ability to move or eat. Or the plastic can cut into the animals’ skin, causing wounds that develop severe infections.
9. Sea turtles eat plastic bags and soda-can rings, which resemble jellyfish, their favourite food. Seabirds eat bottle caps or chunks of foam cups. Plastic pieces may make an animal feel full, so it doesn’t eat enough real food to get the nutrients it needs. Plastic can also block an animal’s digestive system, making it unable to eat.
10. Plastic and its associated pollutants can even make it into our own food supply. Scientists recently examined fish and shell-fish bought at markets in California and Indonesia. They found plastic in the guts of more than a quarter of samples purchased at both locations. In organisms that people eat whole, such as sardines and oysters, that means we’re eating plastic too. In larger fish, chemicals from plastic may seep into their muscles and other tissues that people consume.