1. Mention the functions performed by shrenis (guilds) during second century BCE.
2. ‘‘The conception of social pollution intrinsic to the Indian Caste System was contrary to the laws of nature.’’ Analyse the statement of Al-Biruni.
3. How did the introduction of Railways in 1853 change the fortunes of colonial towns ? Explain two points.
How did the Lottery Committee carry out the work of town planning in Calcutta in the early decades of the nineteenth century ? Explain.