POLITICAL SCIENCE (028) Marking Scheme – Set II
CLASS – XII (2015-16)
1. Sri Lanka
2. Globalization as a concept fundamentally deals with the flow ideas, people, commodities and capital from one part of the world to another.
3. After communal partition, the Indian leaders felt that carving out states on the basis of language might lead to further disruption and disintegration of the country.
4. It lacked direction, leadership and a common programme.
5. Its advocates say that it would benefit huge areas Gujarat and three adjoining states in terms of availability of drinking water and water for irrigation, generation of electricity and increase in agricultural production.
6. A) The concept of logic of deterrence played a vital role in averting the outbreak of another world war. It implies that when two rival powers are in possession of nuclear weapons capable of inflicting death and destruction unacceptable to each other, a full fledged war is unlikely.
B) Thus, the cold war in spite of being an intense form of rivalry between great powers remained cold and not hot shooting war.
7. Non alignment policy cannot be equated as a policy of isolationism on the two basis:
a) Non alignment is not isolationism since isolationism means remaining aloof from the world affairs.
b) It sums up the foreign policy of the US from the American war of Independence in 1787 up to the beginning of the First World War.
8. The report proposed a reform of the global trading system so as to:
i) give the LDCs control over their natural resources exploited by the developed western world,
ii) Obtain access to Western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and, therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries,
iii) reduce the cost of technology from the western countries, and
iv) provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.
9. I) The Critics of globalization believe that this process pose a threat to rich cultural heritage of the world. It does so, because leads to the rise of a uniform culture or cultural homogenization. The rise of this uniform culture is not the emergence of a global culture. What we have in the name of the global culture is the imposition of western culture on the rest of the world.
II) The culture of politically and economically dominant society leaves its imprint on the less
powerful society, and the world begins to look more like the dominant power wishes it to be.
10. A) Resistance to Globalization has come from different quarters. There have been left wing protests to economic liberalization voiced through political parties as well as through forums like The Indian social Forum.
B)Trade unions of industrial work force as well those representing farmers interests have organized protests against the entry of multi nationals.
11. The various steps undertaken by IMF, World Bank to make a transition from communism to capitalism are as follows:
a) Each of these countries was required to make a total shift to a capitalist economy, which meant rooting out completely any structure evolved during the Soviet period.
b) It meant that private ownership was to be the dominant pattern of ownership of property. Privatization of the state assets and corporate ownership patterns were to be immediately brought in.
c) Collective farms were to be replaced by private farming and capitalism in agriculture.
d) Development was now to be envisaged through more trade, and thus a sudden and complete switch to free trade was considered essential. The free trade regime and foreign direct investment (FDI) were the main engines of change. (1x4=4)
12. The main reasons responsible for the disintegration of USSR were: (1x4=4) Political limitations of the Soviet System:-
I. The Soviet system became very bureaucratic and authoritarian, making life very
difficult for its citizens. Lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech stifled people who often expressed their dissent in jokes and cartoons.
II. Most of the institutions of the Soviet State needed reforms: the one party system represented by the Communist party of the Soviet Union had tight control over all institutions and was unaccountable.
I. Economic stagnation for many years led to severe consumer shortages and a large section of Soviet society began to doubt and question the system.
II. The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintain a nuclear and military
arsenals and the development of the satellite states in Eastern Europe and within the
Soviet system. This led to huge economic burden that the system could not cope with.
13. Russia and China adopted two different paths of market economy.
In Russia the concept of market economy was brought forward by IMF and World Bank and the Russian government was not allowed to take part in this process. In china the state played and continues to play a central role in setting up a market economy.
In Russia, the transition from communism to capitalism was sudden and complete. It meant rooting out completely any structure evolved during Soviet period. China on the other hand, followed their own path of market economy. It did not go for ‘shock thearpy’ but opened its economy step by step.
The shock therapy brought ruins to the Russian economy. Their large state controlled industrial complex collapsed as about 90 percent of its industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies. Since restructuring was carried out through market forces and not by government directed industrial policies, it led to the virtual disappearance of entire industries. The new economic policies helped the Chinese economy to break away from stagnation. The Chinese economy, including Industry and agriculture grew at a faster scale.
China has become the most important destination for foreign direct Investment anywhere in the world. It has large foreign exchange reserves that now allow it to make big investments in other countries. As a result of ‘shock therapy’, the value of Ruble, the Russian currency declined dramatically. The real GDP of Russia in 1999 was below what it was in 1989.Ten years after the introduction of Shock therapy, Russia could revive its economy. (1x4=4)
14. i) It is widely believed that Cooperation rather than military confrontation is required in order to deal with various contemporary threats to security.
ii) Cooperation can be bilateral, regional, continental or global. It would depend upon
the nature of the threat and the willingness and ability of the countries to perform.
iii) Cooperative security may also involve the variety of other players, both international and national- international organizations, non-governmental organizations etc. iv) Co-operative security may require the use of force as a last resort. The international community may have to sanction the use of force as a last resort. (1x4=4)
15. The major land reforms carried in India were: (2x2=4) i) Abolition of Zamindari system, ii) Consolidation of small land holdings and iii) Putting an upper limit or ceiling on the maximum amount of land one can possess.
Some of these land reforms could not be properly implemented in India because the landowners were very powerful and yielded lot of political influence.
As a result these land reforms were either not translated into laws or when made into laws, they remained only on papers.
16. The consensus consists of four elements: (to be explained) ( 1x4=4)
First, agreement on new economic policies.
Second, acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward castes.